Form 20-F
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Table of Contents
 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
FORM
20-F
 
 
(Mark One)
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
OR
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                to                
OR
 
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report
Commission file number
001-40799
 
 
Sportradar Group AG
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
Not Applicable
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)
Switzerland
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
Feldlistrasse 2
CH-9000
St. Gallen
Switzerland
(Address of principal executive offices)
Carsten Koerl
Chief Executive Officer
Email: investor.relations@sportradar.com
Telephone: +41 71 517 72 00
Sportradar Group AG
Feldlistrasse 2
CH-9000
St. Gallen
Switzerland
(Name, Telephone,
E-mail
and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
 
 
Securities registered or to be registered, pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of each class
 
Trading
Symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange
on which registered
Class A ordinary shares, nominal value CHF 0.10 per share
 
SRAD
 
The Nasdaq Global Select Market
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital stock or common stock as of the close of business covered by the annual report. 206,571,517 Class A ordinary shares and 903,670,701 Class B ordinary shares
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ☐    No  ☒
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.     Yes  ☐    No  
Note—Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation
S-T
(§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).     Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a
non-accelerated
filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer     Non-accelerated filer  
Accelerated filer     Emerging growth company  
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
 
U.S. GAAP  ☐           International Financial Reporting Standards as issued             Other  ☐
            by the International Accounting Standards Board            
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.    Item 17  ☐    Item 18  ☐
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ☐    No  
 
 
 

Table of Contents
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i

Table of Contents
 
  
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F-1
 
 
ii

Table of Contents
GENERAL INFORMATION
Except where the context otherwise requires or where otherwise indicated, the terms “Sportradar,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” “our,” “our company” and “our business” refer to Sportradar Group AG, in each case together with its consolidated subsidiaries as a consolidated entity.
PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION
We report under International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”). None of our financial statements were prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”). We maintain our financial books and records and publish our consolidated financial statements in Euros, which is our functional and reporting currency.
After our initial public offering in September 2021, Sportradar Holding AG became the predecessor of Sportradar Group AG for financial reporting purposes. Immediately following the reorganization transactions described under Item 4. “
Information on the Company
A. History and Development of the Company
The Reorganization Transactions
,” Sportradar Group AG became a publicly listed holding company and its sole material asset became its equity interest in Sportradar Holding AG. As the sole direct holder of equity in Sportradar Holding AG, Sportradar Group AG now operates the business and controls the strategic decisions and
day-to-day
operations of Sportradar Holding AG. As a result, we have consolidated the financial results of Sportradar Holding AG. Our financial information is presented in Euros. For the convenience of the reader, in this Annual Report, unless otherwise indicated, translations from Euros into U.S. dollars were made at the rate of €1.00 to $1.13, which was the noon buying rate of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York on December 31, 2021. Such U.S. dollar amounts are not necessarily indicative of the amounts of U.S. dollars that could actually have been purchased upon exchange of Euros at the dates indicated. All references in this Annual Report to “$” mean U.S. dollars, all references to “€” mean Euros and all references to “CHF” mean Swiss Francs.
Certain figures included in this Annual Report and in our financial statements contained herein have been rounded for ease of presentation. Percentage and variance figures included in this Annual Report have in some cases been calculated on the basis of such figures prior to rounding. For this reason, certain percentage and variance amounts in this Annual Report may vary from those obtained by performing the same calculations using the figures in this Annual Report and in the consolidated financial statements contained herein. Additionally, numerical figures shown as totals in some tables may not be an arithmetic aggregation of the figures that preceded them.
Key Financial and Operational Performance Indicators
Throughout this Annual Report, we provide a number of key financial and operational performance indicators used by our management and often used by competitors in our industry. These and other key performance indicators are discussed in more detail in Item 5.A. “
Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
Operating Results—
Non-IFRS
Financial Measures and Operating Metrics
.” We define certain terms used in this Annual Report as follows:
 
   
“Adjusted EBITDA” represents earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization, adjusted for impairment of intangible assets and financial assets, loss from loss of control of subsidiary, foreign exchange gains/losses, other finance income/costs and amortization of sports rights. Adjusted EBITDA is a
non-IFRS
measure and a reconciliation to profit for the year, its most directly comparable IFRS measure, is included in Item 5.A. “
Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
Operating Results—
Non-IFRS
Financial Measures and Operating Metrics
” together with an explanation of why we consider Adjusted EBITDA useful.
 
1

Table of Contents
   
“Adjusted EBITDA margin” is the ratio of Adjusted EBITDA to revenue. See Item 5.A. “
Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
Operating Results—
Non-IFRS
Financial Measures and Operating Metrics
” for the explanation of why we consider the ratio of Adjusted EBITDA to revenue useful in evaluating our operating performance. The most directly comparable IFRS measure to Adjusted EBITDA margin is profit for the year as a percentage of revenue.
 
   
“Adjusted Free Cash Flow” represents net cash from operating activities adjusted for payments for lease liabilities, acquisition of property and equipment, acquisition of intangible assets (excluding certain intangible assets required to further support an acquired business) and foreign currency gains (losses) on our cash equivalents. Adjusted Free Cash Flow is a
non-IFRS
measure and a reconciliation to net cash from operating activities, its most directly comparable IFRS measure, is included in Item 5.A. “
Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
Operating Results—
Non-IFRS
Financial Measures and Operating Metrics
,” together with an explanation of why we consider Adjusted Free Cash Flow useful.
 
   
“Cash Flow Conversion” is the ratio of Adjusted Free Cash Flow to Adjusted EBITDA. See Item 5.A. “
Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
Operating Results—
Non-IFRS
Financial Measures and Operating Metrics
” for the explanation of why we consider the ratio of Adjusted Free Cash Flow to Adjusted EBITDA useful in evaluating our operating performance. The most directly comparable IFRS measure to Cash Flow Conversion is net cash from operating activities as a percentage of profit for the year.
 
   
“Dollar-Based Net Retention Rate” is calculated for a given period by starting with the reported trailing twelve month revenue, which includes both subscription-based and revenue sharing revenue, from our top 200 customers as of twelve months prior to such period end, or prior period revenue. We then calculate the reported trailing twelve month revenue from the same customer cohort as of the current period end, or current period revenue. Current period revenue includes any upsells and is net of contraction and attrition over the trailing twelve months, but excludes revenue from new customers in the current period. We then divide the total current period revenue by the total prior period revenue to arrive at our Dollar-Based Net Retention Rate.
 
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MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA
We obtained the industry, market and competitive position data in this Annual Report from publicly available information, industry and general publications and research, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. In addition, certain statistics, data and other information relating to markets, market sizes, market shares, market positions and other industry data pertaining to our business and markets in this Annual Report are not based on published data obtained from independent third parties or extrapolations therefrom, but rather are based upon our own internal estimates and research, which are in turn based upon multiple third-party sources, including the PricewaterhouseCoopers (“PwC”) 2021 Sports Outlook for North America report, Consumer intelligence series, Sports Survey 2019 and Sports Survey 2020 (collectively, “PwC Reports”), N.J. Division of Gaming Enforcement, H2 Gambling Capital’s Global All Product Summary (the “H2 Report”), Gambling Compliance’s January 2021 U.S. Sports Betting Tracker (the “Gambling Compliance Tracker”), Statista data regarding sports betting, eSports and global sports events (“Statista Data”) and reports by Boston Consulting Group (the “BCG Reports”).
Industry publications and forecasts generally state that the information they contain has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, but that the accuracy and completeness of such information is not guaranteed. Forecasts and other forward-looking information obtained from these sources are subject to the same qualifications and uncertainties as the other forward-looking statements in this Annual Report.
TRADEMARKS, SERVICE MARKS AND TRADE NAMES
We have proprietary rights to certain trademarks used in this Annual Report that are important to our business, many of which are registered under applicable trademark laws.
Solely for convenience, references to the trademarks, service marks, logos and trade names in this Annual Report are without the
®
and
symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensors to these trademarks, service marks and trade names. This Annual Report contains additional trademarks, service marks and trade names of others, which are the property of their respective owners. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trademarks, service marks, copyrights or trade names to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.
 
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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act, Section 21E of the Exchange Act, and the safe harbor provisions of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, that are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. These forward-looking statements are contained principally in Item 3.D. “
Risk Factors
,” Item 4. “
Information on the Company
” and
Item 5. “
Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
.” In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by the following words: “may,” “might,” “will,” “could,” “would,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “seek,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “continue,” “contemplate,” “possible” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. Statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, growth strategy and plans and objectives of management for future operations are forward-looking statements.
Our estimates and forward-looking statements are mainly based on our current expectations and estimates of future events and trends which affect or may affect our business, operations and industry. Although we believe that these estimates and forward-looking statements are based upon reasonable assumptions, they are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties.
 
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SUMMARY OF RISK FACTORS
Many important factors could adversely impact our business and financial performance, including, but not limited to, those discussed in Item 3.D. “
Risk Factors
” of this Annual Report and the following:
 
   
economic downturns and political and market conditions beyond our control could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations;
 
   
the global
COVID-19
pandemic has had and may continue to have an adverse effect on our business or results of operations;
 
   
we depend on the success of our strategic relationships with our sports league partners;
 
   
social responsibility concerns and public opinion regarding responsible gambling, gambling by minors, match-fixing and related matters may adversely impact our reputation;
 
   
changes in public and consumer tastes and preferences and industry trends could reduce demand for our products, services and content offerings;
 
   
potential changes in competitive landscape, including new market entrants or disintermediation by participants in the industry, could harm our business;
 
   
our potential inability to anticipate and adopt new technology in response to changing industry and regulatory standards and evolving customer needs may adversely affect our competitiveness;
 
   
real or perceived errors, failures or bugs in our products could materially and adversely affect our financial conditions or results of operations;
 
   
our inability to protect our systems and data from continually evolving cybersecurity risks, security breaches or other technological risks could affect our reputation among our customers, consumers and regulators, and may expose us to liability;
 
   
interruptions and failures in our systems or infrastructure, including as a result of cyber-attacks, natural catastrophic events, geopolitical events, disruptions in our workforce, system breakdowns or fraud may have a significant adverse effect on our business;
 
   
we, our customers and our suppliers may be subject to a variety of U.S. and foreign laws on sports betting, many of which are unsettled and still developing and which could subject us to claims or otherwise harm our business;
 
   
a significant amount of our revenue is indirectly derived from jurisdictions where we or our customers are not required to hold a license or limited regulatory framework exists and the legality of sports betting varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and is subject to uncertainties;
 
   
our growth prospects depend on the legal and regulatory status of real money gambling and betting legislation applicable to our customers;
 
   
failure to comply with regulatory requirements in a particular jurisdiction, or the failure to successfully obtain a supplier license or authorization applied for in a particular jurisdiction, could impact our ability to comply with or cause rejection of licensing in other jurisdictions;
 
   
our ability to successfully remediate the material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting;
 
   
we are subject to evolving governmental regulations and other legal obligations, particularly related to privacy, data protection and information security, and consumer protection laws across different markets where we conduct our business;
 
   
failure to obtain, maintain, protect, enforce and defend our intellectual property rights, or to obtain intellectual property protection that is sufficiently broad, may diminish our competitive advantages or interfere with our ability to develop, market and promote our products and services;
 
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we may not be able to secure financing in a timely manner, or at all, to meet our long-term future capital needs, which could impair our ability to execute our business plan;
 
   
acquisitions create certain risks and may adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations; and
 
   
as a foreign private issuer, we are not subject to U.S. proxy rules and are subject to Exchange Act reporting obligations that, to some extent, are more lenient and less frequent than those of a U.S. domestic public company.
Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for our management to predict all risks and uncertainties, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from estimates or forward-looking statements. We qualify all of our estimates and forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.
The estimates and forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report speak only as of the date of this Annual Report. Except as required by applicable law, we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any estimates or forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.
 
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PART I
Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Not applicable.
Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Not applicable.
Item 3. Key Information 
A. [Reserved.]
B. Capitalization and Indebtedness
Not applicable.
C. Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
Not applicable.
D. Risk Factors
Our business faces risks and uncertainties which may be significant. You should carefully consider the risks described below and in other documents we file with or furnish to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) before making or maintaining an investment in our securities. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business operations. Our business, reputation, financial condition, share price or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks as well as other risks not currently known to us or not currently considered material. The trading price and value of our Class A ordinary shares could decline due to any of these risks, and may result is a loss of all of part on an investment. This Annual Report also contains forward- looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks faced by us described below and elsewhere in this Annual Report.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
Macroeconomic Risks
Economic downturns and political and market conditions beyond our control, including uncertainty and instability resulting from catastrophic events such as war or acts of terrorism, could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our financial performance is subject to global economic conditions and their impact on levels of entertainment and discretionary consumer spending. Economic recessions have had, and may continue to have, far reaching adverse consequences across many industries, including the global sports entertainment and gaming industries, which may adversely affect our business and financial condition. In the past decade, global and U.S. economies have experienced tepid growth following the financial crisis of 2008 and 2009 and there appears to be an increasing risk of a recession due to international trade and monetary policy, the global
COVID-19
pandemic and other changes. Unfavorable changes in general economic conditions, including recessions, economic slowdowns, sustained high levels of unemployment and rising prices or the perception by consumers of weak or weakening economic conditions, may reduce our customers’ needs for our products due to lower users’ disposable income or fewer individuals engaging in entertainment and leisure activities such as daily fantasy
 
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sports, sports betting and consumption of sports media and content. Acts of terrorism or war, such as the ongoing and rapidly escalating conflict in Ukraine, could cause disruptions in our business or the businesses of our customers, partners, or the global economy as a whole. Specifically, Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the uncertainty surrounding the escalating conflict could negatively impact global and regional financial markets which could result in businesses postponing spending in response to tighter credit, higher unemployment, financial market volatility, and other factors. While we have not experienced a material impact on our business due to this disruption, the impact on our employees as well as the potential for broader, adverse economic impacts of this event are difficult to measure and the ultimate impacts of such event on our business is difficult to predict.
In addition, changes in general market, economic and political conditions in domestic and foreign economies or financial markets, including fluctuation in stock markets resulting from, among other things, trends in the economy as a whole may reduce the demand for sports media, entertainment and betting products and services. Any one of these changes could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union may have a negative effect on global economic conditions, financial markets and our business.
We are a multinational company headquartered in Switzerland with worldwide operations, including business operations in North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Middle East and Asia Pacific. Following a national referendum and enactment of legislation by the government of the United Kingdom, the United Kingdom formally withdrew from the European Union (“EU”) on January 31, 2020, and subsequently ratified a trade and cooperation agreement governing its future relationship with the European Union. Because the agreement merely sets forth a framework in many respects and will require complex additional bilateral negotiations between the United Kingdom and the European Union as both parties continue to work on the rules for implementation, significant political and economic uncertainty remains about how the precise terms of the relationship between the parties will differ from the terms before withdrawal.
The uncertainty around these developments, or the perception that any related developments or that similar EU Member State separations could occur, has had and may continue to have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions and financial markets and could significantly reduce global market liquidity and restrict the ability of key market participants to operate in certain financial markets. Asset valuations, currency exchange rates and credit ratings have been and may continue to be subject to increased market volatility. Lack of clarity about future U.K. laws and regulations as the United Kingdom determines which European Union laws to replace or replicate, including free trade agreements, tax and customs laws, intellectual property rights, environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, immigration laws, employment laws and transport laws could increase costs, disrupt supply chains, depress economic activity and restrict our access to capital. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Risks associated with international operations and foreign currencies could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We provide products and services to 1,715 customers from the Sportradar base (excluding customers acquired as a result of recent acquisitions), as of December 31, 2021, in over 123 countries and intend to continue to expand into additional markets around the globe. As of December 31, 2021, we also have 2,959 full time equivalent employees (“FTE”) in 33 offices in 20 different countries compared to 2,366 FTEs as of December 31, 2020. Our extensive global presence and ability to grow in international markets could be harmed by a number of factors, including:
 
   
Sports betting products and services may be limited or prohibited by existing law or new legislation. We may be required to cease operations in particular countries due to political uncertainties or government restrictions imposed by the United States government or foreign governments, including the United Kingdom and EU countries.
 
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Economic or political instability, natural disasters, war, acts of terrorism, or civil unrest may cause currency devaluation that makes exchange rates difficult to manage, sporting events or matches to be postponed, cancelled or modified or our offices and employees in such regions to be negatively impacted. These risks could negatively impact our ability to offer our services and as a result could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
 
   
The general state of technological infrastructure in some lesser developed countries, including countries where we have a large number of customers, creates operational risks for us that generally are not present in our operations in Europe and other more technologically developed countries.
 
   
Reduced respect and protection for intellectual property rights in some jurisdictions.
As a global business, we also have assets and liabilities denominated in currencies other than our Euros reporting and functioning currency, such as our purchased license rights, which are subject to foreign exchange rate risk.
Although we have in the past used, and may in the future use, derivative financial instruments to hedge against some of our risk exposures arising from our obligations in foreign currencies, there can be no assurance that our hedging activities will effectively manage our foreign exchange risks. In particular, we may not fully hedge our positions in certain currencies and may not always obtain funding in all the currencies we require. Therefore, to the extent we are unable to hedge our position in a currency or is imperfectly hedged in respect of that currency, we may experience unrealized or realized losses.
The global
COVID-19
pandemic has had and may continue to have an adverse effect on our business or results of operations.
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared
COVID-19
a global pandemic, and governmental authorities around the world have implemented measures to reduce the spread of
COVID-19.
These measures, including
“shelter-in-place”
orders, quarantines and travel restrictions suggested or mandated by governmental authorities, have adversely affected workforces, customers, customer confidence, economies and financial markets, and, along with decreased customer spending and increased unemployment, have led to an economic downturn globally.
Government mandated closures of offices or other restrictions on workplaces and voluntary precautionary measures we take have and may continue to impact our ability to operate effectively, our ability to serve our customers, implement regulatory and technology changes, and our ability, and the ability of our service providers, to undertake
on-site
audits or assessments that might be required by law or regulation. It may also become more challenging for us to manage a growing workforce, as our ability to maintain our company culture and integrate new employees are affected by work-from-home policies. It is possible that our systems and controls are less effective as a result of our compliance and risk teams and other staff not being able to work from our offices. Failure to maintain adequate systems and controls may expose us to operational and regulatory risk.
As a result of the
COVID-19
pandemic, significant suspension or cancellation of sporting events, such as the postponement of the 2020 Football European Championship, has occurred, leading to declines in the available content we deliver to our customers, our ability to access sports venues to collect data and sporting events on which bets can be placed. Additionally, as a result of the cancellation of major and professional sporting events, bookmakers have increased demand for lower-tier events. Providing data for such lower-tier and amateur events to meet this demand exposes our business to additional risk, including risks related to fraud, corruption or negligence, reputational harm, regulatory risk, privacy and security risk and certain other risks related to our international operations. Governments could also enhance restrictions on the advertising of gambling and betting products in light of the
COVID-19
pandemic. If, as a result of the
COVID-19
pandemic, the global economic downturn continues or worsens, government restrictions to reduce the spread of the virus are
 
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prolonged or live sporting events and matches continue to be postponed, cancelled or modified, we could experience a greater drop in demand for our products and services, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Governments have taken unprecedented actions in an attempt to address and rectify the extreme market and economic conditions caused by the
COVID-19
pandemic by providing liquidity and stability to financial markets. If these actions are not successful, the return of adverse economic conditions may have a material impact on our operations and/or our ability to raise capital, if needed, on a timely basis and on acceptable terms or at all.
To the extent the
COVID-19
pandemic adversely affects our business and financial results, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section, such as those relating to our liquidity, business interruptions and market expansion opportunities.
Business Model Risks
We depend on the success of our strategic relationships with our sports league partners. Overreliance or our inability to extend existing relationships or agree to new relationships may cause loss of competitive advantage, unanticipated costs for us or require us to modify, limit or discontinue certain offerings, which could materially affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on strategic relationships with more than 250 sports leagues and federations globally, including the National Basketball Association (“NBA”), National Hockey League (“NHL”) and Major League Baseball (“MLB”) for data and statistics fundamental to our products and services. These long-term relationships provide us with a competitive advantage in distributing accurate and fast data feeds to our customers and in certain jurisdictions, the legal requirement to only use official data increases our reliance on such sports league partners. The partners with whom we have arrangements also provide data and statistics to other companies, including other sports intelligence and software solutions platforms with whom we compete. Should any of our existing or future relationships with such strategic partners fail to provide official (live) data and streaming rights in accordance with the terms of our arrangements, we are unable to renew such contracts on commercially acceptable terms, or at all, or we are not able to find suitable alternatives, we may lose our competitive advantage or be required to discontinue or limit our offerings or services. Our ability to provide our products and services would be harmed and in turn adversely affect our business operations, financial condition or results of operations.
Social responsibility concerns and public opinion regarding responsible gambling, gambling by minors,
match-fixing
and related matters could cause the popularity of sports betting to decline and significantly influence the regulation of sports betting and impact responsible gaming requirements, which may adversely impact our reputation.
We provide products and services to more than 900 sports betting operator customers around the globe and as of each of the fiscal years ended December 31, 2021, and 2020, we generated 55.1%, 25.0% and 12.8%, and 58.0%, 26.2% and 8.5% of our total revenue from our RoW Betting (as defined below), RoW AV (as defined below) and United States segments, respectively. We also operate in a public-facing industry where negative publicity, whether or not justified, can spread rapidly through, among other things, social media. To the extent that we are unable to respond address negative publicity, our reputation and brand could be harmed. Moreover, even if we are able to respond in a timely and appropriate manner, we cannot predict how negative publicity may affect our reputation and business.
Unfavorable publicity regarding us or the actions of third parties with whom we have relationships or the underlying sports (including declining popularity of the sports or athletes) could seriously harm our reputation. Negative publicity, including related to the use of fixed-odds betting terminals, gambling by minors and gambling online, even if not directly or indirectly connected with us or our products and services, in the industry may adversely impact our reputation and the willingness of the public to participate in sports betting. Additionally, the attraction of sports betting to players for whom betting and gaming activities assume too great a
 
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role in their lives poses a challenge to the sports betting industry. If the perception that the sports betting industry is failing to adequately protect vulnerable players, regulators may impose additional restrictions on the offering of sports betting services to such players. Furthermore, negative publicity and reputational harm may give our sports league partners a termination right to discontinue their contracts with us and our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.
In addition, public opinion can significantly influence the regulation of sports betting. A negative shift in the perception of sports betting by the public or by politicians, lobbyists or others could affect future legislation or regulation in different jurisdictions. Among other things, such a shift could cause jurisdictions to abandon proposals to legalize or liberalize sports betting or introduce legislative restrictions, resulting in monopolies or total prohibitions, thereby limiting the number of bookmaker customers to which and/or jurisdictions in which we can potentially expand into. Increasingly negative public perception could also lead to new restrictions on, or the prohibition of, sports betting-related services where we currently, or may in the future, operate. If we are required to restrict our marketing or product offerings or incur increased compliance costs as a result, this could have a material adverse effect on our revenue and could increase operating expenses. For instance, further changes to the United Kingdom’s or other European states’ betting or gaming laws or regulations in reaction to the current adverse media coverage in such jurisdictions, including changes in the political or social attitude to online betting caused by such coverage, could have a material impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Changes in public and consumer tastes and preferences and industry trends could reduce demand for our products, services and content offerings and adversely affect our business.
Our ability to offer sports content solutions to increase sponsor and fan engagement is increasingly important to the success of our business and our ability to generate revenue, which is sensitive to rapidly changing consumer preferences and industry trends, and depend on our ability to satisfy consumer tastes and expectations in a consistent manner. A reduction in consumer spending and time spent on our customers’ products could affect our business. This is especially true in jurisdictions where we operate under a revenue-share model. Our customers will demand fewer products if their users reduce their spending and time, thereby affecting our business and revenue. Our success depends on our ability to offer our products and services, including our sports content and media, that meet the changing preferences of the sports content consumer market, including those of our television, cable network and broadcast partners, and respond to competition from an expanding array of choices facilitated by technological developments in the delivery of sports content. We invest in our sports image and editorial application programming interfaces (“APIs”), including in the creation of high quality content, and our insights and sports page solutions. Our failure to avoid a negative perception among consumers or anticipate and respond to changes in consumer preferences, including in the form of content creation or distribution, could result in reduced demand for our products, services and content offerings or those of our partners. Furthermore, a lack of popularity of our content offerings, as well as labor disputes, unavailability of a star athlete, cost overruns or disputes with production teams, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our market is competitive and we may lose customers and relationships to both existing and future competitors.
The markets for sports data, media, entertainment and betting are competitive and rapidly changing. Competition in these markets may be further exacerbated if economic conditions or other circumstances, such as
COVID-19,
cause customer bases and customer spending to decrease and service providers to compete for fewer customer resources. Our existing competitors, or future competitors, may have or may in the future obtain greater name recognition, larger customer bases, better technology or data, thus providing cheaper services and better offers to operators, organizations and partners, or greater financial, technical or marketing resources, allowing them to respond more quickly to new or emerging technologies or changes in user requirements. For instance, we currently still rely on data journalists to attend events to collect data. If our competitors develop technology that
 
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replaces the need for data journalists before we do, our business could be materially harmed. Further, if competitors gain access to faster visual feeds from stadiums, the value of our
in-stadium
rights would be reduced and our revenue could decline. If we are unable to retain customers or obtain new customers or maintain or develop relationships with sports organizations, our revenue could also decline. Increased competition for exclusive league partnerships could result in lower revenue and higher expenses, which would reduce our profitability. In addition, competitors may reach deals for exclusive rights with sports leagues in one or more countries and therefore block our access to such market.
Potential changes in competitive landscape, including new market entrants or disintermediation by participants in the industry, could harm our business.
The global sports data media, entertainment and betting industries in which we operate and to which we provide products and services are comprised of diverse products and offerings that compete for consumers’ time and disposable income. We compete with a range of providers, each of whom may provide a component of our platform. For certain services and solutions, our primary competition are other sports data and software solution companies and sports content providers.
As the industry grows, jurisdictions legalize sports betting and current operational jurisdictions progress toward maturity, we expect the competitive landscape will continue to change in a variety of ways, including:
 
   
rapid and significant changes in technology, resulting in new and innovative sports entertainment and content options, that could place us at a competitive disadvantage and reduce the use of our products and services;
 
   
direct competitors, such as sports data and solution providers and indirect competitors, such as the sports betting bookmakers and media companies we serve or the league partners we rely on for (live) data and streaming rights, other industry participants and/or new market entrants (including technology and social media companies) may develop products and services that compete with or replace our products and services; and
 
   
participants in the sports media, entertainment and betting industries may undergo disintermediation of service providers and establish direct business relationships with sports leagues and teams for data, statistics and content.
Certain competitors could use strong or dominant positions in one or more markets to gain a competitive advantage against us, such as by integrating competing platforms or features into products they control such as search engines, web browsers, mobile device operating systems or social networks; by making acquisitions; by making access to our platform more difficult; or by employing more aggressive bidding strategies with our sports league partners. Further, current and future competitors could choose to offer a different pricing model or to undercut prices in the market or our prices in an effort to increase their market share. Failure to compete effectively against any of these or other competitive threats could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
If we fail to attract new customers, if the revenue generated by new customers differs significantly from our experiences, or if our customer acquisition costs increase, our business, revenue and growth will be harmed.
We must continually attract new customers in existing markets and expand into new markets in order to grow our business, which depends in large part on the success of our sales and marketing efforts, our ability to deliver and enhance our services and our overall customer experience, to keep pace with changes in technology and our competitors and to expand our marketing partnerships and disbursement network.
Successful promotion of our brand will depend on a number of factors, including the effectiveness of our marketing efforts, including thought leadership, our ability to provide high-quality, reliable and cost-effective products and services, the perceived value of our products and services and our ability to provide quality
 
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customer success and support experience. We spent €4.0 million on marketing and communications and €35.4 million on central engineering technology and infrastructure costs, including personnel costs, in 2021, representing 0.7% and 6.3% of total revenue for the year, and we expect to continue to spend significant amounts to acquire new customers, primarily through product and content marketing that focuses on digital and direct channels to reach the customer from the beginning of their journey. We will continue to invest in brand-building marketing and communications and growing our awareness in emerging and growth markets. Our experience in markets in which we presently have low penetration rates may differ from our more established markets. If our estimates and assumptions regarding the gross profit we can generate from new customers prove incorrect, or if the gross profit generated from new customers differs significantly from that of prior customers, we may be unable to recover our customer acquisition costs or generate profits from our investment in acquiring new customers. Moreover, if our customer acquisition or operating costs increase, the return on our investment may be lower than we anticipate irrespective of the gross profit generated from new customers. We cannot assure you that the gross profit from customers we acquire will ultimately exceed the marketing, technology and development costs associated with acquiring these customers. If we cannot generate profits from this investment, we may need to alter our growth strategy, and our growth rate or results of operations may be harmed.
Our expansion into new markets is also dependent upon our ability to adapt our existing technology and offerings or to develop new or innovative applications to meet the particular service needs of each new market. In order to do so, we will need to anticipate and react to market changes and devote appropriate financial and technical resources to our development efforts, and there can be no assurance that we will be successful in these efforts. Furthermore, we may expand into new geographic markets, in which we do not currently have any operating experience. We cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully continue such expansion efforts due to our lack of experience in such markets and the multitude of risks associated with global operations, including the possibility of needing to obtain appropriate regulatory approval. Any failure to successfully expand may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We may not be able to acquire new customers in sufficient numbers to continue to grow our business due to macroeconomic factors, including global economic downturn, including as a result of the
COVID-19
pandemic, exchange rate fluctuations, increased competition, new and/or stricter regulations and licensing requirements that may be harmful to our or our bookmaker customers’ businesses or other factors, or we may be required to incur significantly higher marketing expenses in order to acquire new customers. A decrease in customer acquisition growth would harm our business, financial conditions or results of operations.
Our ability to retain our customers is dependent on the quality of our products and service, and our failure to offer high quality products and services could have a material adverse effect on our sales and results of operations.
We must continually retain existing customers and expand existing customers’ usage of our products and services, as well as increase our penetration and service offerings within our existing markets of operation to grow our business. For the fiscal years ended December 31, 2020, and 2021, we generated 9.8% and 7.6% of total revenue from a single customer, respectively, and 24.1% and 22.4% of total revenue from our top ten customers combined, respectively. Our ability to retain our significant customers largely depends on whether we can enhance our products and services, and our overall customer experience and keep pace with changes in technology and our competitors. Our product quality must maintain the consistent level of
low-latency
and high accuracy to fulfill our customers’ requirements.
Once our products are deployed and integrated with our customers’ existing information technology investments and data, our customers depend on our customer service to resolve any issues relating to our products. Increasingly, our products have been deployed in large-scale, complex technology environments, and we believe our future success will depend on our ability to increase sales of our products for use in such deployments. Further, our ability to provide effective ongoing support, or to provide such support in a timely, efficient or scalable manner, may depend in part on our customers’ environments and their upgrading to the latest versions of our products and participating in our centralized product management and services.
 
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In addition, our ability to provide effective customer services is largely dependent on our ability to attract, train and retain qualified personnel with experience in supporting customers. The number of our customers has grown significantly, and that growth has and may continue to put additional pressure on our services teams. While our goal is to provide high quality support 24 hours a day, we may be unable to respond quickly enough to accommodate short-term increases in customer demand for our support services. Increased customer demand for support, without corresponding revenue, could increase costs and negatively affect our business and results of operations. In addition, as we continue to grow our operations and expand globally to be able to provide efficient services that meet our customers’ needs globally at scale, and our services teams may face additional challenges, including those associated with operating the platforms and delivering support, training and documentation in different languages and providing services across expanded time-zones. If we are unable to provide efficient customer service globally at scale, our ability to grow our operations may be harmed, and we may need to hire additional services personnel, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition or results of operations.
For some of our products, the customers may need training in the proper use of and the variety of benefits that can be derived from our products to maximize their potential. If we do not effectively deploy, update or upgrade our products, succeed in helping our customers quickly resolve post-deployment issues and provide effective ongoing services, our ability to sell additional products and services to existing customers could be adversely affected, we may face negative publicity and our reputation with potential customers could be damaged. Many enterprise and government customers require higher levels of services than smaller customers. If we fail to meet the requirements of the larger customers, it may be more difficult to execute on our strategy to increase our penetration with larger customers. As a result, our failure to maintain high quality services may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
If customer confidence in our brands, product quality and business deteriorates, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected.
Customer confidence in our brands and product quality, and the ability to provide fast, secure and validated data and content are critical to our success. A number of factors could erode our customers’ confidence in our business, or in the sports media, entertainment and betting industries generally, many of which are beyond our control and could have an adverse impact on our results of operations.
Our business model is based on our ability to provide rapid, reliable and customizable products and services, and customer confidence in our business largely depends on the quality of our service and product experience and our ability to meet evolving customer needs and preferences. If we fail to maintain high quality service, or if there are pervasive customer complaints or negative publicity about our products or services, the confidence and trust customers have in our brands and business may decrease. Other factors include, but are not limited to, delays between the live event in the stadium and the visualization at the customer’s end, as well as any significant interruption in our systems, including as a result of unauthorized entry and computer viruses, fire, natural disaster, power loss, telecommunications failure, terrorism, vendor failure or disruptions in our workforce, including as a result of the
COVID-19
pandemic and any breach, or reported breach, of our computer systems or other data storage facilities, or of certain of our third-party providers, resulting in a compromise of personal or other data.
We are subject to reputational risks related to betting-related match fixing, doping and other sports integrity threats.
Many factors influence our reputation and the value of our brands, including the perception held by our customers, business partners, investors, other industry stakeholders and the communities in which we operate. Our Sportradar Integrity Services supplies sports integrity solutions for sports’ governing bodies, anti-doping organizations, law enforcement agencies, among others, to support them in the fight against betting-related
match-fixing,
doping and integrity threats. As a leading supplier of integrity solutions, we have faced, and will
 
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likely continue to face, increased scrutiny related to our solutions and consulting services, and our reputation and the value of our brands can be materially adversely harmed if a user of our solutions is involved in a major match-fixing or doping scandal. Fraud, corruption or negligence by our employees or contracted statisticians collecting data on behalf of us or third parties could also potentially have an impact on our reputation. Operational errors, whether by us or our competitors, could also harm our reputation or the sports data, sports betting, online gaming and sports marketing industries. Any association with the illegal, unethical or fraudulent activities of our customers or our partners could expose us to potential reputational damage and financial loss. Any harm to our reputation could impact employee engagement and retention, and the willingness of customers and partners to do business with us, which could have a materially adverse effect on our business operations, financial conditions or results of operations.
Because we rely on third-party vendors to provide products and services, we could be adversely impacted if they fail to fulfill their obligations, experience disruption or cease providing services adequately or at all.
Some services relating to our business, such as cloud-based software service providers, software application support, data centers, parts of development, hosting and maintenance of our operating systems, call center services and other operating activities are outsourced to third-party vendors. Any changes to or failures in these systems that degrade the functionality of our products and services, impose additional costs or requirements on it or give preferential treatment to competitors’ services, including their own services, could materially and adversely affect usage of our products and services. In the event our agreements with our third-party vendors are terminated, or if we cannot renew the contracts on terms favorable to us, or at all, or if we cannot find alternative sources of such services or otherwise replace these third-party vendors quickly, we may experience a disruption in our services, and our business and operations could be adversely affected.
The failure of our third-party vendors to perform their obligations and provide the products and services we obtain from them in a timely manner for any reason, including as a result of damage or interruption from, among other things, fire, natural disaster, pandemics (including the
COVID-19
pandemic), power loss, telecommunications failure, unauthorized entry, computer viruses,
denial-of-service
attacks, acts of terrorism, human error, vandalism or sabotage, financial insolvency, bankruptcy and similar events, could adversely affect our operations and profitability due to, among other consequences:
 
   
loss of revenue;
 
   
loss of customers;
 
   
loss of customer data;
 
   
loss of sports league partnerships;
 
   
harm to our business or reputation resulting from negative publicity;
 
   
exposure to fraud losses or other liabilities;
 
   
additional operating and development costs; or
 
   
diversion of management, technical and other resources.
Indemnity provisions in customer and other third-party agreements potentially expose us to substantial liability for intellectual property infringement and other losses.
Many of our agreements with customers and other third parties may include indemnification or other provisions under which we agree to indemnify or otherwise be liable to them for losses suffered or incurred as a result of claims of intellectual property infringement, damages caused by us to property or persons or other liabilities relating to or arising from our products or other acts or omissions. The term of these contractual provisions often survives termination or expiration of the applicable agreement. Large indemnity payments of damage claims from intellectual property infringement or other claims could harm our business, results of
 
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operations and financial condition. Although we attempt to contractually limit our liability with respect to such obligations, we may still incur substantial liability related to them. Any dispute with a customer or other third party with respect to such obligations could have adverse effects on our relationship with that customer or third party and other current and prospective customers and other third parties, reduce demand for our products and services, damage our reputation and harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
If we fail to manage our growth effectively, our brands, results of operations and business could be harmed.
We have experienced rapid growth in our headcount and revenue, which places substantial demands on our management and operational infrastructure. Our headcount grew from 2,366 FTEs as of December 31, 2020, to 2,959 FTEs as of December 31, 2021. Additionally, we may not be able to hire new employees quickly enough to meet our needs. As we continue to grow, we must effectively integrate, develop and motivate a large number of new employees, while maintaining the beneficial aspects of our company culture. If we fail, our efficiency and ability to meet our forecasts and our employee morale, productivity and retention could suffer, and our business and operating results could be harmed.
Our total revenue increased from €404.9 million in 2020 to €561.2 million in 2021. We will need to continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls and our reporting systems and procedures in order to manage this growth. If we do not manage the growth of our business and operations effectively, the quality of our products and services and efficiency of our operations could suffer, which could harm our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our ability to recruit, retain and develop qualified personnel, including key members of our management team, is critical to our success and growth.
All of our businesses function at the intersection of rapidly changing technological, social, economic and regulatory environments that require a wide range of expertise and intellectual capital. In addition, certain jurisdictions where we hold
business-to-business
(“B2B”) gambling and/or betting supplier licenses, such as the United Kingdom or the United States, require certain management functions and key personnel to hold personal or management licenses or authorizations. For us to successfully compete and grow, we must recruit, retain and develop personnel from diverse backgrounds and who can provide the necessary expertise across a broad spectrum of intellectual capital needs. In addition, we must develop, maintain and, as necessary, implement appropriate succession plans to assure we have the necessary human resources capable of maintaining continuity in our business.
For instance, we are highly dependent on the expertise and leadership of our Chief Executive Officer and Founder, Carsten Koerl, and other members of our executive management. The market for qualified and diverse personnel, particularly for specialty technology and development skills in the European Economic Area (“EEA”), such as software engineers and data scientists, is competitive, and we also maintain an expansive network of data journalists and specialized data operators to allow us to cover live matches globally. We may not succeed in recruiting additional personnel for these positions, or may fail to effectively replace current personnel who depart with qualified or effective successors. In particular, the
COVID-19
pandemic may make it challenging for us to manage a growing workforce, as our ability to sustain our company culture and integrate new employees are affected by working from home policies.
In addition, from time to time, there may be changes in our management team that may be disruptive to our business. If our management team, including any new hires that we make, fails to work together effectively and to execute our plans and strategies on a timely basis, or fails to maintain the required licenses or authorizations, our business could be harmed.
Our effort to retain and develop personnel may also result in significant additional expenses, which could adversely affect our profitability. We cannot assure that key personnel, including our executive officers, will
 
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continue to be employed or that we will be able to attract and retain qualified personnel in the future. Failure to recruit, retain or develop qualified personnel could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our business is not fully mature, and our industry is evolving, which makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects and may increase the risk that we will not be successful.
Our business is not fully mature, which makes it difficult to effectively assess our future prospects. You should consider our business and prospects in light of the risks and difficulties we encounter in this evolving market. These risks and difficulties include our ability to, among other things:
 
   
retain an active customer base and attract new customers;
 
   
avoid interruptions or disruptions in our service;
 
   
improve the quality of the customer experience on our platforms;
 
   
earn and preserve our customers’ trust with respect to the quality of our products and services;
 
   
process, store and use personal customer data in compliance with governmental regulation and other legal obligations related to data privacy, data protection and data security;
 
   
comply with extensive existing and new laws and regulations, including licensing requirements for B2B suppliers to the gambling and betting industry;
 
   
effectively maintain a scalable, high-performance technology infrastructure that can efficiently and reliably handle our customer’s needs globally;
 
   
successfully deploy new or enhanced features and services;
 
   
compete with other companies that are currently in, or may in the future enter, the sports data business;
 
   
hire, integrate and retain world-class talent; and
 
   
expand our business into new markets.
If the market for sports media, entertainment and betting does not evolve as we expect, or if we fail to address the needs of this market, our business may be harmed. We may not be able to successfully address these risks and challenges, including those described elsewhere in these Risk Factors. Failure to adequately address these risks and challenges could harm our business, financial results or results of operations.
Technology Risks
Our potential inability to anticipate and adopt new technology and develop and gain market acceptance of new and enhanced products and services in response to changing industry and regulatory standards and evolving customer needs may adversely affect our competitiveness.
Our industry is subject to rapid and significant technological advancements, with the constant introduction of new and enhanced products and services and evolving industry and regulatory standards and customer needs and preferences. We expect that new services and technologies applicable to the sports media, entertainment and sports betting industries will continue to emerge, which could have the effect of driving down the cost to access data and content and lead to more competitive pricing. Our business and financial success will depend on our ability to continue to anticipate the needs of customers and potential customers, to achieve and maintain broad market acceptance for our existing and future products and services, to successfully introduce new and upgraded products and services and to successfully implement our current and future geographic expansion plans. Though we actively seek to respond in a timely manner to changes in customer needs and preferences, technology advances, new and enhanced products and services and competitive pricing, failure to respond timely and appropriately to these changes could adversely impact, on both a short-term and long-term basis, our business,
 
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financial condition or results of operations. Further, any new product or service we develop or acquire might not be introduced in a timely or cost-effective manner and might not achieve the broad market acceptance necessary to generate significant revenue. Expanding into new markets and investing resources towards increasing the depth of our coverage within existing markets also impose additional burdens on our research, systems development, sales, marketing and general managerial resources. In addition, these solutions could become subject to legal or regulatory requirements, which could prohibit or slow the development and provision of such new solutions and/or our adoption thereof. If we are unable to anticipate or respond to technological or industry standard changes on a timely basis, our ability to remain competitive could be adversely affected.
Real or perceived errors, failures or bugs in our products could materially and adversely affect our financial conditions or results of operations.
We provide data feeds regarding schedules, results, performance and outcomes of sporting events to our wide array of customers, who rely on our data to settle bets, create content and generate analysis. The software underlying our products is highly technical and complex. Our software has previously contained, and may now or in the future contain, undetected errors, bugs or vulnerabilities. For example, in October 2018, we experienced a
half-day
temporary data center outage that impacted our services outside of the United States due to defects in third-party networking software. While we have remediated our network topology as a result of this incident, we cannot protect against all possible future defects. In addition, errors, failures and bugs may be contained in open-source or other third-party software utilized in building and operating our products or may result from errors in the deployment or configuration of open-source or third-party software. Some errors in our software may only be discovered after the software has been deployed or may never be generally known. Any errors, bugs or vulnerabilities in our software could result in interruptions in data availability, product malfunctioning or data breaches, and thereby result in damage to our reputation, adverse effects upon customers and users, loss of customers and relationships with third parties, loss of revenue or liability for damages. Furthermore, in some sports, determining the value of certain data points might require a degree of judgment that could result in data that differ from those of other sports data providers, and these differences may give rise to the perception of biased or erroneous data that may negatively harm our reputation. In some instances, we may not be able to identify the cause or causes of the foregoing problems or risks, or be able to take effective steps to remediate such problems or risks, within an acceptable period of time.
Our inability to protect our systems and data from continually evolving cybersecurity risks, security breaches or other technological risks could affect our reputation among our customers, consumers, and regulators, and may expose us to liability.
In conducting our business, we collect, process, transmit, store and otherwise use sensitive business information and personal information or personal data about our customers, employees, partners, vendors and other parties. This information may include account access credentials, credit and debit card numbers, bank account numbers, social security numbers, driver’s license numbers, names and addresses and other types of sensitive business or personal information.
In addition, as a provider of real-time sports data and content, our products and services may themselves be targets of cyber-attacks that attempt to intercept, breach, sabotage or otherwise disable or gain access to them or the data processed thereby, and the defensive and preventative measures we take ultimately may not be able to effectively detect, prevent, or protect against or otherwise mitigate losses from all cyber-attacks. Despite our efforts to create security barriers against such threats, it is virtually impossible to eliminate these risks entirely. Any such breach could enable betting manipulation, compromise our networks, create system disruptions or slowdowns and exploit security vulnerabilities of our products. Additionally, the information stored on our networks, including proprietary information and other intellectual property, could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen, any of which could subject us to liability and cause us financial harm. These breaches, or any perceived breach, may also result in damage to our reputation, negative publicity, loss of key partners, customers and transactions, regulatory complaints, investigations, penalties and increased costs to remedy any
 
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problem and costly litigation, and may therefore adversely impact market acceptance of our products and services and may seriously affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We have been and expect to continue to be the target of malicious third-party attempts to identify and exploit system vulnerabilities, and/or penetrate or bypass our security measures, in order to gain unauthorized access to our networks and systems or those of third parties associated with us. These attempts have included phishing attacks, distributed
denial-of-service
attacks, scams and ransomware, including a small-scale ransomware attack that we experienced in 2021 related to our acquisition of a company, which we were able to quickly and efficiently stop from spreading across our systems. Although we believe none of these actual or attempted cyber-attacks has had a material adverse impact on our operations or financial condition, we cannot guarantee that any such incident will not have such an impact in the future. While we employ multiple methods at different layers of our systems to defend against intrusion and attack and to protect our data, we cannot be certain that these measures are sufficient to counter all current and emerging technology threats. Additionally, the rising prevalence of work-from-home practices has exposed us to more threats as corporate and
non-corporate
devices are used on residential networks that are less secure than our office networks, which we believe was a factor in the above mentioned ransomware attack.
Our computer systems could be subject to breaches, and our data protection measures may not prevent unauthorized access. For example, we are likely to have exposure to
zero-day
vulnerabilities in third party and open source frameworks. By their nature,
zero-day
vulnerabilities are unknown security holes that can gain rapid exposure and exploitation once they are made public. While we believe the procedures and processes we have implemented to detect, prevent and otherwise handle an attack are adequate, the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service, or sabotage systems change frequently and are often difficult to anticipate or detect. Threats to our systems and associated third-party systems can originate from human error or negligence, fraud or malice on the part of employees or third parties or simply from accidental technological failure. Computer viruses and other malware can be distributed and could infiltrate our systems or those of associated third parties. In addition, denial of service or other attacks could be launched against us for a variety of purposes, including to interfere with our services or create a diversion for other malicious activities. Our defensive measures may not prevent unplanned downtime, or the unauthorized access, unauthorized use, or other compromise of sensitive data. While we maintain cyber errors and omissions insurance coverage that covers certain aspects of cyber risks, our insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover all losses. Further, while we select our associated third parties carefully, we do not control their actions. Any problems experienced by these third parties, including those resulting from breakdowns or other disruptions in the services provided by such parties or cyber-attacks and security breaches, could adversely affect our ability to service our customers or otherwise conduct our business or otherwise result in liabilities or other costs and expenses.
We could also be subject to liability for claims relating to misuse of personal information, such as unauthorized marketing purposes, improper collection, analysis, disclosure or other misuse of personal data, and violation of customer protection or data privacy and security laws. We cannot provide assurance that the contractual requirements related to security and privacy that we impose on our service providers who have access to customer data will be followed or will be adequate to prevent such misuse. In addition, we are subject to obligations under certain of our agreements with respect to data privacy and security, including to take certain protective measures to ensure the confidentiality of customer data and to notify affected parties in the event of a breach. The costs of systems and procedures associated with such protective measures may increase and could adversely affect our ability to compete effectively. Any failure to adequately enforce or provide these protective measures or otherwise comply with our obligations could result in liability, protracted and costly litigation, governmental intervention and fines and, with respect to misuse of personal information of our customers, lost revenue, lost sports league partnerships and reputational harm.
Any type of security breach, attack or misuse of data, whether experienced by us or an associated third party, could harm our reputation or deter existing or prospective customers or leagues from using our services, increase our operating expenses in order to contain and remediate the incident, expose us to unbudgeted or
 
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uninsured liability, disrupt our operations (including potential service interruptions), divert management focus away from other priorities, increase our risk of regulatory scrutiny or result in the imposition of penalties and fines under domestic or foreign laws. Also, prospective customers, partners or other third parties may choose to terminate their relationship with us, or delay or choose not to consider us for their needs. Any of the foregoing may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Interruptions and failures in our systems or infrastructure, including as a result of cyber-attacks, natural catastrophic events, geopolitical events, disruptions in our workforce, system breakdowns or fraud may have a significant adverse effect on our business.
Our ability to provide fast, secure and validated products and services largely depends on the efficient and uninterrupted operation of our business processes, computer information systems and infrastructure. For example in 2021, one of our cloud service providers experienced interruptions caused by an air conditioning issue in its data center. As we continue to use hosting partners, interruptions like this may cause instability in a number of our applications for a prolonged period of time. To prepare for cases like this in 2022 and beyond, we plan to dedicate more effort to deploy services in more regions to add additional resiliency as a risk mitigation activity. Any significant interruptions could harm our business and reputation and result in a loss of business. These systems, processes, operations and infrastructure could be exposed to damage, interruption or operational challenges from unauthorized entry and computer viruses and computer
denial-of-service-attacks
as discussed in this “Risk Factors” section under the caption “Our inability to protect our systems and data from continually evolving cybersecurity risks, security breaches or other technological risks could affect our reputation among our customers, consumers, and regulators and may expose us to liability,” human error, hardware or software defects or malfunctions, earthquakes, floods, fires, natural disaster, pandemics, such as the
COVID-19
pandemic, power loss, telecommunications failure, terrorism, vendor failure, geopolitical events, foreign state attacks, system breakdowns of our informational technology or cloud infrastructure or other causes, many of which may be beyond our control. We currently maintain a disaster recovery and business continuity process, however, this may not adequately protect us from such delays and interruptions. While we also maintain business interruption insurance, our coverage may be insufficient to compensate us for all losses that may result from interruptions in our service as a result of system failures and similar events.
Further, we have been and continue to be the subject of cyber-attacks, including routine port scanning by external parties. These attackers and attacks, which may even be initiated by nation-states, have continued to become more sophisticated and are primarily aimed at interrupting our business, exposing us to financial losses, or exploiting information security vulnerabilities. Historically, none of these attacks or breaches has individually or in the aggregate resulted in any material liability to us or any material damage to our reputation, and disruptions related to cybersecurity have not caused any material disruption to our business. The safeguards we have designed to help prevent future security incidents and systems disruptions and comply with applicable contractual, regulatory and other legal requirements may not be successful, and we may experience material security incidents, disruptions or other problems in the future. We also may experience software defects, development delays and other systems problems, which could harm our business and reputation and expose us to potential liability, which may not be fully covered by our business interruption insurance. In addition, hardware, software or applications we develop or procure from third parties may contain defects in design or manufacture or other problems that could unexpectedly compromise information security. These applications may not be sufficient to address technological advances, regulatory requirements, changing market conditions or other developments.
Additionally, if our customer base and engagement continue to grow, and the amount and types of services and product offerings continue to grow and evolve, we will need an increasing amount of technical infrastructure, including network capacity and computing power, to continue to satisfy our users’ needs. Such infrastructure expansion may be complex, and unanticipated delays in completing these projects or availability of components may lead to increased project costs, operational inefficiencies, or interruptions in the delivery or degradation of the quality of our services or product offerings. In addition, there may be issues related to this infrastructure that
 
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are not identified during the testing phases of design and implementation, which may become evident only after we have started to fully use the underlying equipment or software, that could further degrade the user experience or increase our costs. As such, we could fail to continue to effectively scale and grow our technical infrastructure to accommodate increased demands.
We depend on computing infrastructure operated by Amazon Web Services (“AWS”), Microsoft, Oracle and other third parties to support some of our customers and any errors, disruption, performance problems, or failure in their or our operational infrastructure could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We rely on the technology, infrastructure, and software applications, including
software-as-a-service
offerings, of certain third parties, such as AWS, Microsoft Azure and Oracle, in order to host or operate some or all of certain key platform features or functions of our business, including our cloud-based services, customer relationship management activities, billing and order management, and financial accounting services. Additionally, we rely on computer hardware purchased in order to deliver our platforms and services. We do not have control over the operations of the facilities of the third parties that we use. If any of these third-party services experience errors, disruptions, security issues, or other performance deficiencies, if they are updated such that our platforms become incompatible, if these services, software, or hardware fail or become unavailable due to extended outages, interruptions, defects, or otherwise, or if they are no longer available on commercially reasonable terms or prices (or at all), these issues could result in errors or defects in our platforms, cause our platforms to fail, our revenue and margins could decline, or our reputation and brand to be damaged, we could be exposed to legal or contractual liability, our expenses could increase, our ability to manage our operations could be interrupted, and our processes for managing our sales and servicing our customers could be impaired until equivalent services or technology, if available, are identified, procured, and implemented, all of which may take significant time and resources, increase our costs, and could adversely affect our business. Many of these third-party providers attempt to impose limitations on their liability for such errors, disruptions, defects, performance deficiencies, or failures, and if enforceable, we may have additional liability to our customers or third-party providers.
We may in the future experience, disruptions, failures, data loss, outages, and other performance problems with our infrastructure and cloud-based offerings due to a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, introductions of new functionality, human or software errors, employee misconduct, capacity constraints, denial of service attacks, phishing attacks, computer viruses, malicious or destructive code, or other security-related incidents, and our disaster recovery planning may not be sufficient for all situations. If we experience disruptions, failures, data loss, outages, or other performance problems, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our systems and the third-party systems upon which we and our customers rely are also vulnerable to damage or interruption from catastrophic occurrences such as earthquakes, floods, fires, power loss, telecommunication failures, cybersecurity threats, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, public health crises such as the
COVID-19
pandemic, geopolitical and similar events, or acts of misconduct. Despite any precautions we may take, the occurrence of a catastrophic disaster or other unanticipated problems at our or our third-party vendors’ hosting facilities, or within our systems or the systems of third parties upon which we rely, could result in interruptions, performance problems, or failure of our infrastructure, technology, or platforms, which may adversely impact our business. In addition, our ability to conduct normal business operations could be severely affected. In the event of significant physical damage to one of these facilities, it may take a significant period of time to achieve full resumption of our services, and our disaster recovery planning may not account for all eventualities. In addition, any negative publicity arising from these disruptions could harm our reputation and brand and adversely affect our business.
Any interruption in our service, whether as a result of an internal or third party issue, could damage our brand and reputation, cause our customers to terminate or not renew their contracts with us or decrease use of our
 
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platforms and services, require us to indemnify our customers against certain losses, result in our issuing credit or paying penalties or fines, subject us to other losses or liabilities, cause our platforms to be perceived as unreliable or unsecure, and prevent us from gaining new or additional business from current or future customers, any of which could harm our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Moreover, to the extent that we do not effectively address capacity constraints, upgrade our systems as needed, and continually develop our technology and network architecture to accommodate actual and anticipated changes in technology, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected. The provisioning of additional cloud hosting capacity requires lead time. AWS, Microsoft Azure, and other third parties have no obligation to renew their agreements with us on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. If AWS, Microsoft Azure or other third parties increase pricing terms, terminate or seek to terminate our contractual relationship, establish more favorable relationships with our competitors, or change or interpret their terms of service or policies in a manner that is unfavorable with respect to us, we may be required to transfer to other cloud providers or invest in a private cloud. If we are required to transfer to other cloud providers or invest in a private cloud, we could incur significant costs and experience possible service interruption in connection with doing so, or risk loss of customer contracts if they are unwilling to accept such a change.
A failure to maintain our relationships with our third party providers (or obtain adequate replacements), and to receive services from such providers that do not contain any material errors or defects, could adversely affect our ability to deliver effective products and solutions to our customers and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
The competitive position of our extensible markup language (“XML”) or application programming interfaces feeds depends in part on their ability to integrate, operate and share data with our customers’ applications.
The competitive position of our XML and API feeds depends in part on their ability to integrate, operate and share data with the visualization tools, software and technology infrastructure of our customers. As such, we must continuously modify and enhance our XML and API feeds to adapt to changes in website applications and mobile apps and to ensure efficiency, speed and scale. If the interoperability of our XML and API feeds with our customers’ decreases, we could become less attractive to users of our products, lose market share or be required to spend more costs to enhance compatibility. We intend to facilitate the compatibility of our XML and API feeds with various third-party software and infrastructure by maintaining and expanding our business and technical relationships. If we are not successful in achieving this goal, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected.
Issues in the use of artificial intelligence, including machine learning, in our platforms may result in reputational harm or liability.
AI and machine learning is enabled by or integrated into some of our products, such as Simulated Reality, an
AI-driven
product for professional sports matches and a range of
pre-match
and live
(in-play)
betting opportunities. As with many developing technologies, AI presents risks and challenges that could affect its further development, adoption, and use, and therefore our business. AI algorithms may be flawed. Datasets may be insufficient, of poor quality, or contain biased information. Inappropriate or controversial data practices by data scientists, engineers, and end users of our systems could impair the acceptance of AI solutions. If the recommendations, forecasts, or analyzes that AI applications assist in producing are deficient or inaccurate, we could be subjected to competitive harm, potential legal liability, and brand or reputational harm. Some AI scenarios present ethical issues. Though our business practices are designed to mitigate many of these risks, if we enable or offer AI solutions that are controversial because of their purported or real impact on human rights, data privacy and data security, employment, or other social issues, we may experience brand or reputational harm.
 
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Legal and Regulatory Risks
We, our customers and our suppliers may be subject to a variety of U.S. and foreign laws on sports betting, many of which are unsettled and still developing and which could subject us to claims or otherwise harm our business. Any change in existing regulations or their interpretation or the regulatory climate could adversely impact our ability to operate our business or decrease the demand for our products and services. The introduction of licensing requirements for the supply of products and services to the gambling and betting industry may adversely impact our ability to operate in such jurisdictions.
Many of the customers we serve and our business offered under the brand “Betradar,” which offers products and services to bookmakers around the world to enhance their sportsbook operations, may be subject to laws and regulations relating to sports betting and online betting and gaming in those jurisdictions in which our customers or we offer our services.
Future legislative and regulatory action, court decisions, including by the Court of Justice of the European Union (“CJEU”), or other governmental action, such as the future regulation of sports betting in further jurisdictions in Europe and the United States, which may be affected by, among other things, political pressures, attitudes and climates, as well as personal biases and an increasingly negative tendency towards all forms of sports betting and gambling in politics and the wider society, may have a material impact on the legislation and licensing requirements applicable to our and our customers’ businesses and/or our operations and financial results. Stricter legislation, licensing and regulatory requirements as well as an increase in restrictions on the advertising of sports betting and gambling products may decrease the demand for our products and services or prevent us from providing these services entirely.
Our failure to obtain licenses in jurisdictions that introduce licensing requirements for supplying products and services to the gambling and betting industry (as well as our failure to maintain any of our existing licenses) may result in us having to change, restrict, suspend or cease our supply of services and may ultimately result in a loss of revenue, the imposition of sanctions and penalties, including contractual fines and/or reputational damage. In case of licensing requirements being introduced in jurisdictions where we have local presence or other assets and/or from where we provide services that become subject to licensing, failure to obtain a license may result in changes to our business model and/or to the locations from where we operate the related parts of our business and ultimately to a forced temporary or permanent closure of such local presence, loss of revenue and/or reputational damages.
There can be no assurance that legally enforceable legislation will not be proposed and passed in jurisdictions relevant or potentially relevant to our and our customers’ businesses to prohibit, legislate or regulate various aspects of the sports betting industry (or that existing laws in those jurisdictions will not be interpreted negatively), including the introduction of new licensing and authorization requirements for our and our customers’ businesses and the introduction of licensing requirements for B2B suppliers of products and services to the gambling and betting industry. In particular, some jurisdictions have introduced regulations attempting to restrict, monopolize or prohibit online gambling and/or betting, while others have taken the position that online gaming and/or betting should be licensed and regulated and have adopted or are in the process of considering legislation and regulations to enable that to happen. Changes to existing forms of regulation may include the introduction of punitive tax regimes, requirements for large bonds or other financial guarantees, limitations on product offerings, requirements for ring-fenced liquidity, requirements to obtain licenses and/or caps on the number of licensees, restrictions on permitted marketing activities or restrictions on third-party service providers to sports betting operators. In addition, some jurisdictions in which we may operate could presently be unregulated or partially regulated and therefore more susceptible to the enactment or change of laws and regulations.
Any adverse changes to the regulation of sports betting, the interpretation of these laws, regulations, government action and licensing requirements by relevant regulators or the revocation of operating licenses could materially adversely affect our ability to conduct our operations and generate revenue in the relevant jurisdiction. In particular, it may become commercially undesirable or impractical for us to provide sports betting services in
 
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certain jurisdictions as the local license or approval costs increase, our returns from or scope of service in such jurisdictions may be reduced or we may be forced to withdrawal from such jurisdictions entirely, with a material financial loss due to restrictions to our customers located in these jurisdictions.
Additionally, governmental authorities could view us as having violated local laws, despite efforts to obtain all applicable licenses or approvals. There is also a risk that civil and criminal proceedings, including class actions brought by or on behalf of prosecutors or public entities or incumbent monopoly providers, or private individuals, could be initiated against participants in the sports betting industry. Such potential proceedings could involve substantial litigation expense, penalties, fines, seizure of assets, injunctions or other restrictions being imposed upon us, our customers or other business partners, while diverting the attention of key executives. Such proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations, as well as impact our reputation. In addition, there is a risk that the provision of products and services to customers who are not in compliance with gambling and betting legislation and/or regulatory requirements in certain jurisdictions, despite efforts to ensure that our products and services are made available only to customers who comply with all applicable legislation, including gambling and betting legislation, may lead to sanctions and penalties being issued against us based on aiding and abetting an illicit gambling or betting offer. This may result in us being unqualified to maintain our existing regulatory licenses or obtain future licenses and authorizations.
A significant amount of our revenue is indirectly derived from jurisdictions where we or our customers are not required to hold a license or where limited regulatory framework exists and the approach to regulation and the legality of sports betting varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and is subject to uncertainties.
The regulation and legality of sports betting and approaches to enforcement vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction (from open licensing regimes to regimes that impose sanctions or prohibitions), including within the European Union single market, as well as across jurisdictions in the United States, and in certain jurisdictions there is limited or no legislation which is directly applicable to ours or our customers’ businesses. While the majority of gambling and betting laws in Europe do not require us to hold licenses for providing our products and services to the betting industry on a B2B basis and thus, in most European jurisdictions, our business is not subject to holding a supplier license, some jurisdictions, including the United States and certain European jurisdictions, such as the United Kingdom and Malta, require us to hold a supplier license issued by the competent gambling and betting regulatory authority. In jurisdictions where the provision of B2B supply services to the betting industry is not subject to holding a supplier license, we operate our business based on agreements in which our customers warrant and represent that their respective
business-to-customer
(“B2C”) gambling and betting services comply with the applicable local legislation.
The legality of sports betting services in certain jurisdictions is not clear or is open to interpretation. In many jurisdictions, there are conflicting laws and/or regulations, conflicting interpretations, divergent approaches by enforcement agencies and/or inconsistent enforcement policies and, therefore, some or all forms of sports betting could be determined to be illegal in some of these jurisdictions, either when operated within the jurisdiction and/or when accessed by persons located in that jurisdiction. Moreover, the legality of sports betting is subject to uncertainties arising from differing approaches among jurisdictions as to the determination of where sports betting activities take place and which authorities have jurisdiction over such activities and/or those who participate in or facilitate them.
There is a risk that regulators or prosecutors in jurisdictions where we provide online gambling and/or betting services to customers without a local license or pursuant to a multi-jurisdictional license may take legal action against our operations and despite our good faith efforts to comply with all local requirements any defense we may raise may not be successful. These actions may include criminal sanctions and penalties, as well as civil and administrative enforcement actions, fines, funds and asset seizures, authorities seeking to seize funds generated from the allegedly illegal activity as well as payment blocks and internet service provider (“ISP”) blacklisting, some of which may be more readily enforceable within an economic area such as the EEA. Even if such claims are successfully defended, the process may result in a loss of reputation, potential loss of revenue and diversion of management resources and time.
 
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In addition, there are many jurisdictions around the world where the legality of various forms of gambling is open to interpretation, often arising from a delay or failure to update gambling laws to reflect the availability of modern remote betting products. In those cases, there are justifiable arguments to support various forms of betting and gaming activities on the basis that they are not expressly prohibited, that their application to
off-shore
activities is unclear, that betting and gaming products are readily available within the particular jurisdiction and/or that there is no history of enforcement of betting and gaming regulations. Changes in regulation in a given jurisdiction could result in it being
re-assessed
as a restricted territory without the potential to generate revenue on an ongoing basis. Our inability to operate and work with customers in a large betting or gaming market in the future, for example Germany, or a number of smaller betting or gaming markets which collectively are material, could have a material adverse effect on our ability to generate revenue and our profit margins due to a decrease in economies of scale.
We determine whether to permit customers in a given jurisdiction to access any one or more of our products and services and whether to engage in various types of marketing activity and customer outreach based on a number of factors, including but not limited to:
 
   
the laws and regulations of the jurisdiction;
 
   
the terms of our betting licenses;
 
   
the approach by regulatory and other authorities to the application or enforcement of such laws and regulations, including the approach of such authorities to the extraterritorial application and enforcement of such laws;
 
   
state, federal or supranational law, including EU law if applicable;
 
   
any changes to these factors; and
 
   
internal rules and policies.
However, our assessment of the factors referred to above may not always accurately predict the likelihood of one or more jurisdictions taking enforcement or other adverse action against us, our customers or third-party suppliers, which could lead to fines, criminal sanctions and/or the termination of our operations in such jurisdictions.
As a supplier to the gambling and betting industry, our growth prospects depend on the legal and regulatory status of real money gambling and betting legislation applicable to our customers. Additionally, even if jurisdictions legalize real money gambling and betting, this may be accompanied by legislative or regulatory restrictions and/or taxes that make it impracticable or less attractive for our customers to operate in those jurisdictions, or the process of implementing regulations or securing the necessary licenses to operate in a particular jurisdiction may take longer than we anticipate, which may lead to a decreased demand for our products and services and adversely affect our business.
Business customers that receive data they use in the gambling and betting industry, including operators of real money gambling and betting offers, face a legal and regulatory landscape that impacts our business.
Several jurisdictions have regulated or are currently regulating or considering regulating the provision of real money gambling and betting to end consumers. Our business, financial condition and results of operations are significantly dependent upon the regulation that is applicable to and directly impacts our customers.
Certain jurisdictions in which laws currently prohibit or restrict sports betting or the marketing of those services, or protect monopoly providers, may implement changes to open their markets through the adoption of competitive licensing and regulatory frameworks. We have and still intend to expand our offering of sports betting services into such clarified or liberalized jurisdictions and markets, including within North America (in particular, following the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision to strike down the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act of 1992 (“PASPA”) in May 2018), Europe and elsewhere internationally.
 
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While clarification and liberalization of the regulation of sports betting in certain jurisdictions and markets may provide our customers and us growth opportunities, successful expansion into each potential new jurisdiction or market will present its own complexities and challenges. Efforts to access a new jurisdiction or market may require us to incur significant costs, such as capital, local resources, local infrastructure, specific technology, marketing, legal and other costs, as well as the commitment of significant senior management time and resources. Notwithstanding such efforts, our ability to successfully enter such jurisdictions or markets may be affected by future developments in state/regional, national and/or supranational policy and regulation, limitations on market access, ability of our customers to successfully enter, competition from third parties and other factors that we are unable to predict at this time or are beyond our control. As a result, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in expanding our offering of sports betting services into such jurisdictions or markets or that our service and product offerings will grow at expected rates or be successful in the long term at all.
For example, the failure of state/regional, national and/or supranational regulators (particularly in various U.S. states) to implement a regulatory framework for provision of betting and gaming services in their jurisdictions in a timely manner, or at all, may prevent, restrict or delay our customers and us from accessing such markets. In addition, any regulation ultimately implemented may prohibit or materially restrict our customers’ and our ability to enter such jurisdictions. In particular, where licensing regimes are introduced in certain markets, there is no guarantee that our customer and we will be successful in obtaining or retaining a license to operate in such markets. Further, even if we do, any such license may be subject to onerous licensing requirements, together with sanctions for breach thereof and/or taxation liabilities that may make the market unattractive or impose restrictions that limit our ability to offer certain of our key products or services. Additionally, a license may require us to offer our products in partnership or cooperation with a local market participant, thereby exposing us to the risk of poor or
non-performance
by such participant, which could in turn disrupt or restrict our ability to effectively compete and offer our products in the relevant market. Finally, the complexity from the introduction of multiple state/regional regulatory regimes, particularly within the United States where multiple states are expected to introduce varying regulatory regimes, may result in considerable operational, legal and administrative costs for us, especially in the short term.
Furthermore, our competitors or their partners may already be established in a jurisdiction or market. If regulation is liberalized or clarified in such jurisdictions or markets, we may face increased competition from other providers and this may in turn increase the overall competitiveness of the sports betting industry. We may face difficulty in competing with providers that take a more aggressive approach to regulation and are consequently able to generate revenue in markets from which we do not accept customers or in which we do not advertise. We may also face operational difficulties in successfully entering new markets, even where regulatory issues do not materially restrict such entity.
Failure to comply with regulatory requirements in a particular jurisdiction, or the failure to successfully obtain a supplier license or authorization applied for in a particular jurisdiction, could impact our ability to comply with licensing and regulatory requirements in other jurisdictions, or could cause the rejection of license applications or the restriction, condition, suspension or revocation of existing licenses in other jurisdictions.
Compliance with the various regulations applicable to our business in the context of offering products and services as a supplier to the gambling and betting industry is costly and time-consuming. In jurisdictions where we are required to hold such supplier licenses, the regulatory authorities regularly have broad powers with respect to the regulation and licensing of our business and may restrict, condition, suspend or ultimately revoke our licenses, impose substantial fines on us and take other actions, any one of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. These laws and regulations are dynamic and subject to potentially differing interpretations, and various legislative and regulatory bodies may expand current laws or regulations or enact new laws and regulations regarding these matters.
Non-compliance
 
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with any such legislation or regulations could expose us to claims, legal or regulatory proceedings, license reviews, litigation and investigations by regulatory authorities, as well as substantial fines and negative publicity, each of which may materially and adversely affect our business.
Any of our existing supplier licenses may be restricted, conditioned suspended or ultimately revoked. The loss, suspension or review of a license or any condition imposed on a license held in one jurisdiction could trigger restrictions, conditions, suspension or loss of a license or affect our suitability and eligibility for such a license in another jurisdiction, and any of such restrictions, conditions, suspension or losses, or potential for such restriction, condition, suspension or loss, could cause us to cease offering some or all of our offerings in the impacted jurisdictions. We may be unable to obtain or maintain all necessary registrations, licenses, permits or approvals, and could incur fines or experience delays related to the licensing process, which could adversely affect our operations. Our delay or failure to obtain or maintain licenses in any jurisdiction may prevent us from providing our products and services, increasing our customer base and/or generating revenue. Any failure to maintain or renew our existing licenses, registrations, permits, authorizations, or approvals could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We face the risk of loss, revocation,
non-renewal
or change in the terms of our existing supplier licenses.
Our existing supplier licenses typically include a right for the regulatory authority to restrict, condition, suspend or revoke the license in certain circumstances, for example, where the licensee is in breach of the relevant regulatory requirements. In addition, the suitability process as part of any renewal or continuation application may be expensive and time-consuming and any costs incurred are unlikely to be recoverable if the application is unsuccessful. If any of our existing supplier licenses are not renewed or renewal is delayed, or if such licenses are restricted, conditioned, suspended, revoked or renewed on terms materially less favorable to our business, this may restrict us from providing some or all of our services to customers in such jurisdiction and may require us to restrict or suspend our services to customers in relation to such jurisdiction or to withdraw from that jurisdiction either temporarily or permanently, each of which would have a consequent negative impact on our revenue.
To date, we have obtained all licenses, authorizations, findings of suitability, registrations, permits and approvals necessary for our current operations. Our supplier licenses tend to be issued for fixed periods of time, after which a renewal of the license is required. For example, certain of our licenses will expire and will need to be renewed in 2022, including our one year-term U.S. betting licenses for Arkansas, Colorado, West Virginia, Washington, Indiana and Tennessee, among others. However, we can give no assurance that any additional licenses, permits and approvals that may be required will be given or that existing ones will be renewed or will not be revoked. Renewal is subject to, among other things, continued satisfaction of suitability and eligibility requirements of our directors, officers, key employees and personnel and shareholders. Any failure to renew or maintain our licenses or to receive new licenses when necessary would have a material adverse effect on our business.
In some jurisdictions our key executives and officers, certain employees, key personnel, or other individuals related to the business are subject to licensing and/or compliance requirements. Failure by such individuals to obtain the necessary licenses or comply with individual regulatory obligations, could cause our business to be
non-compliant
with its regulatory obligations, or imperil our ability to obtain or maintain the supplier licenses necessary to conduct our business. In some cases, the remedy to such situation may require the removal of a key executive or employee and the mandatory redemption or transfer of such person’s equity securities.
As part of obtaining and maintaining supplier licenses and authorizations, the competent gambling and betting regulatory authorities will generally determine suitability of certain directors, officers and employees and, in some instances, shareholders holding an equity participation or voting rights exceeding certain materiality thresholds. The criteria used by gambling and betting regulatory authorities to make determinations as to who requires a finding of suitability or the suitability of an applicant to conduct gaming operations vary across jurisdictions, but generally, and in particular in the United States, the competent authorities require extensive and
 
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detailed application disclosures. The competent authorities regularly have broad discretion in determining whether an applicant should be found suitable to conduct operations within a given jurisdiction. If any competent authority with jurisdiction over our business were to find an officer, director, employee, any key personnel or significant shareholder unsuitable for licensing or unsuitable to continue having a relationship with us, we would be required to sever our relationship with that person and be forced to appoint a different individual who meets the authority’s suitability requirements, which could result in having a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Additionally, a gambling and betting regulatory authority may refuse to issue or renew a supplier license or restrict, condition, suspend or ultimately revoke any existing supplier license, based on any past or present activities of our directors, officers, key employees and personnel, shareholders or third parties with whom we have relationships, which could adversely affect our business. Further, there is a risk that going forward our existing and/or any future key officers, directors, key employees and personnel or significant shareholders will not meet all suitability and eligibility criteria necessary for us to maintain or obtain the supplier licenses and authorizations required for operating our business, which may result in the need to replace the respective individual who fails to meet the suitability and eligibility criteria imposed by a gambling and betting regulatory authority. Any failure to renew or maintain such licenses or to receive new licenses when necessary would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
There have been various attempts in the European Union to apply domestic criminal and administrative laws to prevent our sports betting operator clients licensed in other EU member states (“Member States”) from operating in or providing services to customers within their territory; the case law of the CJEU on this issue continues to evolve and the reactions of the governments of Member States create uncertainty for online betting operators.
There have been attempts by regulatory authorities, state licensees and incumbent operators, including monopoly operators, in certain Member States to apply their domestic criminal and administrative laws to prevent, or attempt to prevent, sports betting operators licensed in other Member States from operating in or providing services to customers within their territories. Although certain Member States are subject to infringement proceedings initiated by the European Commission in relation to the laws that they apply to betting as being contrary to the EU law principles of free movement of services, the application and enforcement of these principles by the CJEU, the domestic courts and regulatory authorities in various Member States, remains subject to continuing clarification. There have been a considerable number of relevant proceedings before the domestic courts of various Member States and the CJEU.
If the jurisprudence of the CJEU continues to recognize that Member States may, subject to certain conditions, establish or maintain exclusive licensing regimes that restrict the offering of sports betting services by operators licensed in other Member States, our sports betting operator clients’ ability to allow their customers in a given Member State to access one or more of their sports betting services and to engage in certain types of marketing activity and customer contact may be impacted. Depending on the national courts’ or competent authorities’ interpretation of the EU law, our clients may have to submit to local licensing, regulation and/or taxation in more Member States and/or exclude customers in certain Member States, either entirely or from certain product offerings. Any such consequences could potentially indirectly reduce our revenue in the European Union.
We are subject to evolving governmental regulations and other legal obligations, particularly related to privacy, data protection and information security, and consumer protection laws across different markets where we conduct our business. Our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, results of operations or financial condition, or have other adverse consequences.
As part of our business, we collect personal information, personal data and other potentially sensitive and/or regulated data from our customers and employees and other parties, including bank account numbers, social
 
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security numbers, credit and debit card information, identification numbers and images of government identification cards. Laws and regulations in the United States and around the world restrict and regulate how personal information is collected, processed, stored, used and disclosed, including by setting standards for its security, implementing notice requirements regarding privacy practices, and providing individuals with certain rights regarding the use, storage, disclosure and sale of their protected personal information. In the United Kingdom, as well as the European Union, we are subject to laws and regulations that are more restrictive in certain respects than those in the United States. For example, the EU General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which came into force on May 25, 2018, implemented stringent operational requirements for the collection, use, retention, protection, disclosure, transfer and other processing of personal data. The European regime also includes directives which, among other things, require Member States to regulate marketing by electronic means and the use of web cookies and other tracking technology. Member States have transposed the requirements of these directives into their own national data privacy regimes, and therefore the laws may differ between jurisdictions. These are also under reform and might be replaced by a regulation that could provide consistent requirements across the European Union.
The GDPR introduced more stringent requirements (which will continue to be interpreted through guidance and decisions over the coming years) and requires organizations to erase an individual’s information upon request and limit the purposes for which personal data may be used. The GDPR also imposed mandatory data breach notification requirements and additional new obligations on service providers. A U.K.-only adaptation of the GDPR took effect on January 1, 2021 under the UK Data Protection Act 2018 and the UK General Data Protection Regulation (as defined by the UK Data Protection Act 2018 as amended by the Data Protection, Privacy and Electronic Communications (Amendments etc.) (EU Exit) Regulations 2019) after the end of the United Kingdom’s transition period for its withdrawal from the European Union, which exposes us to two parallel regimes, each of which potentially authorizes similar fines for certain violations. The European Commission has adopted an adequacy decision in favor of the United Kingdom, enabling data transfers from Member States to the United Kingdom without additional safeguards. However, the UK adequacy decision will automatically expire in June 2025 unless the European Commission
re-assesses
and renews/ extends that decision, and remains under review by the Commission during this period. In September 2021, the UK government launched a consultation on its proposals for wide-ranging reform of UK data protection laws following Brexit. There is a risk that any material changes which are made to the UK data protection regime could result in the Commission reviewing the UK adequacy decision, and the UK losing its adequacy decision if the Commission deems the UK to no longer provide adequate protection for personal data. These changes may lead to additional costs and increase our overall risk exposure. Other countries have also passed or are considering passing laws requiring local data residency and/or restricting the international transfer of data. Additionally, the CJEU’s decision of July 16, 2020 in the “Schrems II” matter invalidated the
EU-U.S.
Privacy Shield and raised questions about whether one of its primary alternatives, namely, the European Commission’s Standard Contractual Clauses (“SCCs”), can lawfully be used for personal data transfers from the European Union to the United States or most other countries. While the CJEU upheld the adequacy of the SCCs, it made clear that reliance on them alone may not necessarily be sufficient in all circumstances. Use of the SCCs must now be assessed on a
case-by-case
basis taking into account the legal regime applicable in the destination country, in particular applicable surveillance laws and rights of individuals and additional technical and organizational measures and/or contractual provisions may need to be put in place. However, the nature of these additional measures is currently uncertain in part as respective guidance of the supervisory authorities leaves room for interpretation. The CJEU went on to state that if a competent supervisory authority believes that the SCCs cannot be complied with in the destination country and the required level of protection cannot be secured by other means, such supervisory authority is under an obligation to suspend or prohibit that transfer. Moreover, the European Commission released an implementation decision for a new set of SCCs on June 4, 2021, which requires us to use new SCCs since September 28, 2021 and replace existing SCCs by December 27, 2022. These recent developments may require us to review and amend the legal mechanisms by which we transfer personal data from the European Union and the United Kingdom. As supervisory authorities issue further guidance on personal data export mechanisms, including circumstances where the SCCs cannot be used, and/or start taking enforcement action, we could suffer additional costs, complaints and/or regulatory investigations or fines, and/or
 
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if we are otherwise unable to transfer personal data between and among countries and regions in which we operate, it could affect the manner in which we provide our products, the geographical location or segregation of our relevant systems and operations, and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operation. This may impact our ability to transfer personal data from Europe to the United States and other jurisdictions.
In recent years, U.S. and European lawmakers and regulators have expressed concern over electronic marketing and the use of third-party cookies, web beacons and similar technology for online behavioral advertising. In the European Union, marketing is defined broadly to include any promotional material and the rules specifically on
e-marketing
are currently set out in the ePrivacy Directive and national implementation laws which will be replaced by a new ePrivacy Regulation. The legal framework for electronic marketing and communication is constantly evolving and subject to enforcement by regulators, activists consumer protection organizations and individuals, which may require us to adopt our practices. While no official time frame exists for the ePrivacy Regulation, there will be a transition period for compliance after the ePrivacy Regulation is finalized. We will likely be required to expend further capital and other resources to ensure compliance with these evolving and changing laws and regulations. While we have numerous mitigation controls in place, advertisements produced by us may be erroneously served on websites that are not suitable for the advertising content of gambling (e.g., websites predominantly aimed at children). There is also a risk that gambling advertisements are viewed by people who do not want to view them, or who have taken measures not to receive them (for example, individuals on “self-exclusion” lists). In each case this may have adverse legal and reputational effects on our business. Our media customers may also use our services to target jurisdictions where they are not permitted to advertise, and our risk mitigation controls may fail to identify and/or prevent this, which could cause our business to suffer adverse legal and reputational effects.
In the United States, both the federal and various state governments have adopted or are considering laws, guidelines or rules for the collection, distribution, processing, transmission, storage and other use of personal information collected from or about customers or their devices. For example, California enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), which became effective January 1, 2020, and requires new disclosures to California consumers, imposes new rules for collecting or using information about minors, and affords consumers new abilities to opt out of certain disclosures of personal information. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for data breaches that is expected to increase data breach litigation. The effects of the CCPA and its implementing regulations, particularly in light of uncertainties about the scope and applicability of exemptions that may apply to our business, are potentially significant and may require us to modify our data collection or processing practices and policies, particularly with respect to online advertising and data analytics, and to incur substantial costs and expenses in an effort to comply. Other states are considering the implementation of similar statutes. Moreover, the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”), which will become operational in 2023, significantly modifies and expands on the CCPA, creating new consumer rights and protections, including the right to correct inaccurate personal information, the right to opt out of the use of personal information in automated decision making, the right to opt out of “sharing” consumer’s personal information for cross-context behavioral advertising, and the right to restrict use of and disclosure of sensitive personal information, including geolocation data to third parties. Further, Virginia and Colorado have enacted the Consumer Data Protection Act and the Colorado Privacy Act, respectively, which will go into effect in 2023 and will impose obligations similar to or more stringent than those we may face under other data protection laws. Similar laws have been proposed in other states and at the federal level, reflecting a trend toward more stringent privacy legislation in the United States.
Restrictions on the collection, use, sharing or disclosure of personal information or personal data or additional requirements and liability for security and data integrity could require us to modify our products and services, possibly in a material manner, could limit our ability to develop new products and services and could subject us to increased compliance obligations and regulatory scrutiny. Current and proposed regulation addressing consumer privacy and data use and security could also increase our costs of operations.
 
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Further, we make public statements about our use and disclosure of personal information through our privacy policy, information provided on our website and press statements. Although we endeavor to ensure that our public statements are complete, accurate and fully implemented, we may at times fail to do so or be alleged to have failed to do so. We may be subject to potential regulatory or other legal action if such policies or statements are found to be deceptive, unfair or misrepresentative of our actual practices. These laws and regulations are constantly evolving, and it is possible that they may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our practices and our efforts to comply with the evolving data protection rules may be unsuccessful. We must devote significant resources to understanding and complying with this changing landscape. If our privacy or data security measures fail to comply with applicable current or future laws and regulations, we may be subject to litigation, regulatory investigations and fines, enforcement notices requiring us to change the way we use personal data or our marketing practices, and significant costs for remediation. For example, under the GDPR we may be subject to fines of up to €20.0 million or up to 4% of the total worldwide annual group turnover of the preceding financial year (whichever is higher). We may also be subject to other liabilities, such as civil litigation claims by data subjects, as well as negative publicity and a potential loss of business, business partners, consumer trust and market confidence. In December 2020, a group of U.K. football players issued data subject access requests under the GDPR to various participants in the sports data and sports betting industries, including us. If the request (named “Project Red Card”) develops into legal action, it could significantly alter the way we collect and use sports data relating to players, could subject us to fees or other damages and could materially affect the sports data industry as whole. Under the terms of our existing contractual arrangements, any adverse judgments could impact the validity of such contractual arrangements and/or our ability to rely on intellectual property rights to prevent third-party infringement, which may force us to alter our business strategy and have an adverse effect on our business. Even if we are not determined to have violated these laws, government investigations into these issues typically require the expenditure of significant resources and generate negative publicity. Any of the foregoing may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Failure to obtain, maintain, protect, enforce and defend our intellectual property rights, or to obtain intellectual property protection that is sufficiently broad may diminish our competitive advantages or interfere with our ability to develop, market and promote our products and services.
Our patents, trademarks, trade names, trade secrets,
know-how,
proprietary technology and other intellectual property rights are important to our success. While it is our policy to vigorously protect and defend our intellectual property rights , we cannot predict whether the steps we take to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce our intellectual property will be adequate to prevent infringement, misappropriation, dilution or other potential violations of our intellectual property rights. We may not be able to register our intellectual property rights in all jurisdictions where we do business, and in certain circumstances, we may determine that it is not commercially desirable to obtain registered protection for our products, software, databases or other technology. In such situations, we must rely on laws governing the protection of unregistered intellectual property rights, and contractual confidentiality and/ or exclusivity provisions to protect our data and technology, which may limit the remedies available to us in the event of unauthorized use by third parties. If we are unable to protect our proprietary offerings, technology and features via relevant laws or contractual exclusivity, competitors may copy them. Even if we seek to register our intellectual property rights, third parties may contest our applications, and even if we are able to obtain registrations, third parties may challenge the validity or enforceability of the registered intellectual property. Further, we cannot guarantee that our patents, registered trademarks or other intellectual property will be of sufficient scope or strength to provide us with meaningful protection or competitive advantage. We also cannot guarantee that others will not independently develop technology with the same or similar functions to any proprietary technology we rely on to conduct our business and differentiate ourselves from our competitors. Unauthorized parties may attempt to reverse engineer our technology to develop applications with the same or similar functionality as our solutions, and competitors and other third parties may also adopt trade names or trademarks similar to ours. Further, competitors and other third parties have in the past and may in the future attempt to make unauthorized use of our data. Monitoring and policing unauthorized use of our data, technology and intellectual property rights is difficult and may not be effective, and we cannot assure
 
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you that we will have adequate resources to police and enforce our intellectual property rights. Uncertainty may also result from changes to intellectual property laws or to the interpretation of those laws by applicable courts and agencies. For example, the legal position in all jurisdictions in relation to the ownership and permitted use of sports data and databases is subject to change. This area may receive focus in the United States following the lifting of the PASPA ban. As such, we cannot be certain that our current uses of data from publicly available sources or otherwise, which are not known to infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate third-party intellectual property today, will not result in claims for infringement, misappropriation or other violations of third-party intellectual property in the future. If we are unable to maintain the proprietary nature of our technologies, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. Any litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights or defend ourselves against oppositions or other proceedings regarding our registered or
applied-for
intellectual property could be costly, divert attention of management and may not ultimately be resolved in our favor.
We attempt to protect our intellectual property and proprietary information by (i) implementing industry-standard administrative, technical and physical practices, including source code access controls, to secure our proprietary information, and (ii) requiring all of our employees and consultants and certain of our contractors to execute confidentiality and invention assignment agreements. However, we may not be able to obtain these agreements in all circumstances. Furthermore, we cannot guarantee that all employees, consultants and contractors will comply with the terms of these agreements, or that the agreements will effectively protect our proprietary information or protect our ownership of our intellectual property rights. Accordingly, we may not be able to prevent the unauthorized disclosure or use of our technical
know-how
or other trade secrets by the parties to these agreements despite the existence generally of confidentiality agreements, access controls, industry standard practices and other contractual restrictions. Monitoring unauthorized uses and disclosures is difficult and costly, and we do not know whether the steps we have taken to protect our proprietary technologies and information will be effective. In addition, courts outside the United States are sometimes less willing to protect trade secrets,
know-how
and other proprietary information. We also may be forced to bring claims against third parties, or defend claims that they may bring against us, to determine the ownership of what we regard as our intellectual property.
We employ individuals who were previously employed at other companies in our field, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although we try to ensure that our employees and consultants do not use the proprietary information or
know-how
of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or our employees, consultants or independent contractors have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of a former employer or other third parties. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we are unsuccessful in defending any such claims, we may be liable for damages, and we may also be prevented from using certain intellectual property, which in turn could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management and other employees. Any of the foregoing may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our use of “open-source” software could adversely affect our ability to offer our products and services and subject us to possible litigation.
We use open-source software in connection with our proprietary software and expect to continue to use open-source software in the future. Use and distribution of open-source software may entail greater risks than use of other third-party commercial software, as licensors of open-source software generally do not provide support, warranties, indemnification or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the licensed code. Some open-source licenses may require licensees that incorporate open-source code into their proprietary software, or that distribute their proprietary software with or link their proprietary software to open-source code, to publicly disclose their proprietary source code, or may prohibit the licensees from charging a fee to other parties for use of such software. In addition, the public availability of open-source software may make it easier for others to compromise or reproduce our services or product offerings.
 
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While we try to insulate our proprietary code from the effects of such open-source license provisions, we cannot guarantee we will be successful. Accordingly, we may face claims from others claiming ownership of software, or seeking to enforce open-source license terms with respect to our software, including by demanding release of our proprietary source code that was developed or distributed with or linked to such software. Any such release could allow our competitors to create similar technologies with less development effort and in less time and could lead to a loss of sales of our products and services. These claims could also result in litigation, require us to purchase a costly license or require us to devote additional research and development resources to change our software, any of which would have a negative effect on our business or results of operations. In addition, if the license terms for the open-source code change, we may be forced to
re-engineer
our software or incur additional costs. The use of certain open-source software can also lead to greater risks than the use of third-party commercial software, as open-source licensors generally do not provide warranties or controls on the origin of software which, thus, may contain security vulnerabilities or infringing or broken code. Any of the foregoing may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we are not able to maintain, enhance and protect our reputation and brand recognition, including through the maintenance and protection of trademarks, our business will be harmed.
We believe that maintaining and enhancing our reputation and brand recognition is critical to our relationships with our partners and customers and to our ability to attract new partners and customers. The promotion of our brand may require us to make substantial investments and we anticipate that, as our market becomes increasingly competitive, these marketing initiatives may become increasingly difficult and expensive. If we fail to adequately protect or enforce our rights under trademarks that are important to our business, we may lose the ability to use those trademarks or to prevent others from using them, which could adversely harm our reputation and our business. It is possible that others may assert senior rights to similar trademarks, in the United States and internationally, and seek to prevent our use and registration of our trademarks in certain jurisdictions. Our pending trademark applications may not result in such trademarks being registered, and we may not be able to use these trademarks to commercialize our products and services in the relevant jurisdictions.
Our registered or unregistered trademarks may be challenged, infringed, circumvented, diluted, declared generic, lapsed or determined to be infringing on or dilutive of other marks. We may not be able to protect our rights in these trademarks, which we need in order to build name recognition with partners and customers. If we are unable to adequately protect our trademarks or to establish name recognition based on our trademarks, our ability to build brand identity could be impeded and possibly lead to market confusion, we may not be able to compete effectively, and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Third parties may initiate legal proceedings alleging that we are infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating their intellectual property or similar proprietary rights, the outcome of which would be uncertain and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our commercial success depends on our ability to develop and commercialize our products and services and use our technology without infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating the intellectual property or similar proprietary rights of third parties. Whether merited or not, we have faced, and may in the future face, claims of infringement, misappropriation or other violation of third-party intellectual property or similar proprietary rights that could interfere with our ability to market and promote our brands, products and services. This could include claims that the content made available through our products and services violates individuals’ (including athletes’) rights of publicity or privacy or utilizes without authorization, infringes upon, dilutes or otherwise violates third-party trademarks or brand names. Any litigation to defend ourselves against claims of infringement, misappropriation or other violation of third-party intellectual property or similar proprietary rights could be costly, divert attention of management and may not ultimately be resolved in our favor. Moreover, failure to successfully settle or defend against claims that we have infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated the intellectual property or similar proprietary rights of others may require us to stop using certain intellectual property or commercializing certain products and services, obtain licenses, modify our services and
 
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technology while we develop
non-infringing
substitutes, incur substantial damages or settlement costs, or face a temporary or permanent injunction prohibiting us from marketing or providing the affected products and services. If we require a third-party license, it may not be available on reasonable terms or at all, and we may have to pay substantial royalties and upfront or ongoing fees. Such licenses may also be
non-exclusive,
which could allow competitors and other parties to use the subject technology in competition with us. We may also have to redesign our services and technologies so they do not infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate third-party intellectual property or similar proprietary rights, which may not be possible or may require substantial monetary expenditures and time, during which our technology may not be available for commercialization or use.
Some third parties may be able to sustain the costs of complex litigation more effectively than we can because they have substantially greater resources. Even if resolved in our favor, litigation or other legal proceedings relating to intellectual property claims may cause us to incur significant expense, and could distract our technical and management personnel from their normal responsibilities. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments, and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a material adverse effect on the price of our Class A ordinary shares. Moreover, any uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of any legal proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our ability to raise the funds necessary to continue our operations. Any of the foregoing could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our ability to commercialize our technology and products is subject, in part, to the terms and conditions of licenses granted to us by others.
We are reliant upon licenses to certain data and other intellectual property rights that are important to our products and services, including from strategic partners such as the NBA and MLB. These and other licenses are generally
non-exclusive,
and may not provide us with sufficient rights to use such data and other intellectual property rights, including in all territories in which we may wish to commercialize our products and services. As a result, we may not be able to prevent competitors or parties from commercializing competitive products and services. In spite of our best efforts, our licensors might conclude that we have materially breached our license agreements and might therefore terminate the license agreements, thereby removing our ability to commercialize our products and services covered by these license agreements. Even if these agreements are not terminated, upon their expiration, we may be required to
re-negotiate
or renew these agreements with our licensors, or enter into new agreements with other rights holders, in order to commercialize our products and services. There is significant competition for such licenses, and we cannot guarantee that we will be able to renew our licenses. Furthermore, as rights holders develop their own offerings, they may be unwilling to provide us with access to certain data or content, such as data and content for popular or highly anticipated game broadcasts or series. If our licensors and other rights holders are not willing or able to license us data, content or other materials upon terms acceptable to us (or at all), our ability to commercialize our products and services may be impaired or our costs could increase. In addition, we may seek to obtain additional licenses from our licensors and, in order to obtain such licenses, we may have to agree to amend our existing licenses in a manner that may be more favorable to the licensors. Any of the foregoing could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We could be subject to changes in tax laws or their interpretations or additional taxes in or out of the United States and Switzerland, or could otherwise have exposure to additional tax liabilities, which could reduce our profitability.
We are subject to tax laws in each jurisdiction where we do business. Changes in tax laws or their interpretations could decrease the amount of revenue we receive, the value of any tax loss carry-forwards and tax credits recorded on our balance sheet and the amount of our cash flow, and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, other factors or events, including business combinations and investment transactions, changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities, adjustments to taxes upon finalization of various tax returns or as a result of deficiencies asserted by taxing authorities, increases
 
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in expenses not deductible for tax purposes, changes in available tax credits, changes in transfer pricing methodologies, other changes in the apportionment of our income and other activities among tax jurisdictions, and changes in tax rates, could also increase our future effective tax rate.
Our tax filings are subject to review or audit by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) and state, local and
non-U.S.
taxing authorities. We exercise judgment in determining our worldwide provision for taxes and, in the ordinary course of our business, there may be transactions and calculations where the proper tax treatment is uncertain. We may also be liable for taxes in connection with businesses we acquire. Our determinations are not binding on the IRS or any other taxing authorities, and accordingly the final determination in an audit or other proceeding may be materially different than the treatment reflected in our tax provisions, accruals and returns. An assessment of additional taxes because of an audit could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Further changes in the tax laws of
non-U.S.
jurisdictions could arise, in particular, as a result of the base erosion and profit shifting project that was undertaken by the Organization for Economic
Co-operation
and Development (“OECD”). The OECD, which represents a coalition of member countries, recommended changes to numerous long-standing tax principles. These changes, if adopted, could increase tax uncertainty and may adversely affect our provision for income taxes and increase our tax liabilities.
Due to the Swiss corporate tax law reform that took effect on January 1, 2020, all Swiss cantons, including the Canton of St. Gallen, have abolished the cantonal tax privileges. Therefore, since January 1, 2020, we are subject to standard cantonal taxation. The standard effective corporate tax rate in St. Gallen, Canton of St. Gallen, can change from time to time. The standard combined (federal, cantonal, communal) effective corporate income tax rate, except for dividend income for which we could claim a participation exemption from 2020 onwards in St. Gallen will be approximately 14.50%. Further, the available tax loss carryforward could be limited in case an entity changes from a preferential to the ordinary tax regime.
If we fail to comply with the anti-corruption, anti-bribery, economic sanctions and export controls, anti-money laundering and similar laws of the U.S. and various international jurisdictions could negatively impact our reputation and results of operations.
Doing business on a worldwide basis requires us to comply with anti-corruption laws and regulations imposed by governments around the world with jurisdiction over our operations, which may include the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), the U.K. Bribery Act 2010 (“U.K. Bribery Act”), as well as the laws of the other countries and territories where we do business. The FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act, and other applicable laws prohibit us and our officers, directors, employees and business partners acting on our behalf, including agents, from corruptly offering, promising, authorizing or providing anything of value to “foreign officials” for the purposes of influencing official decisions or obtaining or retaining business or otherwise obtaining favorable treatment. The U.K. Bribery Act also prohibits
non-governmental
“commercial” bribery and accepting bribes.
We are subject to the jurisdiction of various governments and regulatory agencies around the world, which may bring our personnel and representatives into contact with “foreign officials,” including those responsible for issuing or renewing permits, licenses or approvals or for enforcing other governmental regulations. In addition, some of the international locations in which we operate lack a developed legal system and have elevated levels of corruption.
Our business also must be conducted in compliance with applicable economic and trade sanctions laws and regulations, such as those administered and enforced by the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, the U.S. Department of State, the U.S. Department of Commerce, the United Nations Security Council, the Swiss State Secretariat For Economic Affairs (“SECO”), the European Union, Member States, and Her Majesty’s Treasury of the United Kingdom, and other relevant sanctions authorities. Changes in these laws or regulations, or shifts in the approach to their enforcement, could impact our ability to sell our product to
 
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existing or potential customers. In particular, sanctions imposed by the U.S, EU, UK and other jurisdictions in response to Russian activities in Ukraine, and any counter-sanctions enacted in response, could restrict our ability to operate, generate or collect revenue in certain other countries, such as Russia, which could adversely affect our business.
Our international operations expose us to the risk of violating, or being accused of violating, anti-corruption, economic sanctions and export control laws and regulations. Our failure to successfully comply with these laws and regulations may expose us to reputational harm, as well as significant sanctions, including criminal fines, imprisonment, civil penalties, disgorgement of profits, injunctions and debarment from government contracts, as well as other remedial measures. Investigations of alleged violations can be expensive and disruptive. We have policies and procedures designed to comply with applicable anti-corruption, economic sanctions and export control laws and regulations. However, there can be no guarantee that our policies and procedures will effectively prevent violations by our employees or business partners acting on our behalf, for which we may be held responsible, and any such violation could adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
Financial and Capital Risks
We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting which could, if not remediated, result in a material misstatement in our financial statements and our ability to timely and accurately report our financial condition and results of operations or comply with applicable laws and regulations could be impaired, which could materially and adversely affect investor confidence in us and, as a result, the value of our ordinary shares.
As a public company, we are required to maintain internal control over financial reporting and will be required to evaluate and determine the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal controls over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement in our annual or interim consolidated financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.
Prior to our initial public offering in September 2021 (“IPO”), we were a private company with limited accounting personnel and other relevant resources with which to address our internal controls and procedures. In the course of reviewing our financial statements in preparation for our IPO, our management and our independent registered public accounting firm identified the following deficiency that we concluded represented a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021. The material weakness related to insufficient design and implementation of controls, IT systems and segregation of duties.
A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. We are in the process of implementing measures to improve our internal control over financial reporting to remediate this weakness. We have begun to hire key finance and technical IFRS accounting personnel and a new central financial controls and assurance team is being created with responsibility for setting and maintaining finance controls, policies and standards. We are continuing to evaluate the need for additional resources of this type. We have also engaged external advisors, who are assisting us in implementing internal controls to remediate the material weakness.
We also begun an enterprise resource planning (“ERP”) implementation which we believe will better support an effective internal control framework. The implementation requires us to integrate the new ERP system with multiple new and existing information systems and business processes, and the ERP system is designed to accurately maintain our books and records and provide information to our management team important to the operation of the business. If the ERP system rollout is not effectively implemented as planned, the conversion from our old system to the ERP system causes inefficiencies, or the ERP system does not operate as intended, the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting could be adversely affected.
 
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Although improvement and remediation efforts are ongoing, we cannot provide assurance that we will be able to complete full remediation by December 31, 2022, when we will be required to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(a) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”). Additionally, if we lose our emerging growth company status, our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. At such time, our independent registered public accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse in the event it is not satisfied with the level at which our internal control over financial reporting is documented, designed or operating. We will remain an “emerging growth company” until the earliest of: (1) December 31, 2026; (2) the last day of the first fiscal year in which our annual gross revenue is $1.07 billion or more; (3) the date on which we have, during the previous rolling three-year period, issued more than $1.0 billion in
non-convertible
debt securities; and (4) the date we qualify as a “large accelerated filer.” We are also required to disclose material changes made in our internal control over financial reporting. Failure to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act could potentially subject us to sanctions or investigations by the SEC, the stock exchange on which our securities are listed or other regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources. We have begun the costly and challenging process of compiling the system and processing documentation necessary to perform the evaluation needed to comply with Section 404, but we may not be able to complete our evaluation, testing and any required remediation in a timely fashion.
There is also no assurance that we have identified all our material weaknesses or that we will not in the future have additional material weaknesses. If during the evaluation and testing process in 2022 we identify additional material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting or determine that existing material weaknesses have not been remediated, our management will be unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective and additional remediation efforts and associated costs will be required. Even if our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, our independent registered public accounting firm may conclude that there are material weaknesses with respect to our internal control over financial reporting. If we fail to remediate the material weaknesses or to meet the demands that will be placed upon us as a public company, including the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of our ordinary shares could be adversely affected and we could become subject to litigation or investigations by our stock exchange, the SEC, or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources.
Our operating results and operating metrics are subject to seasonality and volatility, which could result in fluctuations in our quarterly revenue and operating results or in perceptions of our business prospects.
We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, some degree of seasonal fluctuations in our revenue, which can vary by region. For the data packages that we offer, we only charge during active months of each sport and prorate for optional preseason or postseason coverage. The broad geographical mix of our customer base also impacts the effect of seasonality as customers in different territories will place differing importance on different sporting competitions, which often have different calendars. As such, our revenue has historically been strongest during the first quarter when most playoffs and championship games occur and has historically seen decreased or stalled growth rates during
off-seasons.
Our revenue may also be affected by the scheduling of major sporting events that do not occur annually, or the cancellation or postponement of sporting events and races, such as the postponement of the 2020 Football European Championship. We also experience volatility in certain other metrics, such as revenue shares and trading performance. Volatility in our key operating metrics or their rates of growth could result in fluctuations in our financial condition or results of operations, make forecasting our future business results and needs more difficult, adversely affect our ability to manage working capital and may lead to adverse inferences about our prospects, which could result in declines in our share price.
 
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We may not be able to secure financing in a timely manner, or at all, to meet our long-term future capital needs, which could impair our ability to execute our business plan.
We believe that our existing cash, available borrowing under our credit facilities and expected cash flow from operations, will be sufficient to meet our operating and capital requirements for at least the next 12 months.
Although we are Adjusted EBITDA-positive, we may require additional capital to respond to future business opportunities, including increasing the number of customers acquired, new league deals, challenges, acquisitions or unforeseen circumstances and may determine to engage in equity or debt financings for other reasons. Our ability to obtain additional capital, if and when required, will depend on our business plans, investor demand, our operating performance, markets conditions, our credit rating and other factors. Any debt financing secured by us in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. If we decide to raise additional funds by issuing equity or equity-linked securities, those securities may have rights, preferences or privileges senior to the rights of our currently issued and outstanding equity, and our existing shareholders may experience dilution. We may not be able to secure additional debt or equity financing in a timely manner, or at all, which could require us to scale back our future business plan and operations.
We may not be able to generate sufficient revenue to maintain profitability or to generate positive cash flow on a sustained basis, and our revenue growth rate may decline.
We may experience losses after tax in the future, and we cannot assure you that we will generate sufficient revenue to offset the cost of maintaining our platform and maintaining and growing our business. Although our revenue grew at 24% revenue compound annual growth rate (“CAGR”) from 2016 to 2021, we cannot provide assurance that our revenue will continue to grow at the same pace or at all or will not decline. An investor should not consider our historical revenue growth or operating expenses as indicative of our future performance. Reduced demand, whether due to a weakening of the global economy, reduction in consumer spending, competition or other reasons, may result in decreased revenue and growth, adversely affecting our operating results. If our revenue growth rate declines or our operating expenses exceed our expectations, our financial performance will be adversely affected.
Additionally, we also expect our costs to increase in future periods, which could negatively affect our future operating results and ability to achieve and sustain profitability. We expect to continue to invest substantial financial and other resources on technology development, marketing and human capital. These investments may not result in increased revenue or growth in our business. If we cannot successfully generate revenue at a rate that exceeds the costs associated with our business, we will not be able to achieve profitability and our revenue growth rate may decline. Even with sustained or increasing revenue growth rates, we may not be able to maintain profitability or generate positive cash flow on a continuous basis, if our costs grow in tandem. If we fail to continue to grow our revenue and overall business, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Acquisitions create certain risks and may adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
A key element of our business strategy is to complement our organic growth with acquisitions. We routinely explore acquiring other businesses and assets, and we have acquired businesses in the past and may continue to make acquisitions of businesses or assets in the future.
However, we may be unable to identify or complete promising acquisitions for many reasons, including any misjudgment of the key elements of an acquisition, competition among buyers, the high valuations of businesses in our industry, the need for regulatory and other approvals, lack of internal resources to actively pursue all attractive opportunities and availability of capital.
 
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When we do identify potential acquisition targets, the acquisition and integration of businesses or assets involves a number of risks. These risks include valuation (determining a fair price for the business or assets), structuring (including, when necessary, carving out the target entity from the seller), integration (managing the process of integrating the acquired business’ people, products, technology and other assets to extract the value and synergies projected to be realized in connection with the acquisition), talent retention (retaining management or other talent with the knowledge and skills necessary to continue to operate the acquired business), regulation (obtaining regulatory or other government approvals, including antitrust approvals, that may be necessary to complete the acquisition and integrate thereafter) and due diligence (including identifying risks to the prospects of the business, including undisclosed or unknown liabilities or restrictions to be assumed in the acquisition). In addition, a significant portion of the purchase price of companies we acquire may be allocated to acquired goodwill and other intangible assets. We are required to test goodwill and any other intangible assets with an indefinite life for possible impairment on an annual basis, or more frequently when circumstances indicate that impairment may have occurred. We are also required to evaluate amortizable intangible assets and fixed assets for impairment if there are indicators of a possible impairment. In the future, if our acquisitions do not yield expected returns, we may be required to take charges to our results of operations based on this impairment assessment process, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
In addition, to the extent we pursue acquisition of foreign businesses and assets, these potential acquisitions often involve additional or increased risks, including:
 
   
managing geographically separated organizations, systems and facilities;
 
   
integrating personnel with diverse business backgrounds and organizational cultures;
 
   
complying with additional regulatory and other legal requirements, including the requirement to maintain or transfer licenses and authorizations following a change of control in the acquired business or obtain new licenses or authorizations;
 
   
addressing financial and other impacts to our business resulting from fluctuations in currency exchange rates and unit economics across multiple jurisdictions;
 
   
obtaining, maintaining, protecting and enforcing intellectual property rights internationally;
 
   
difficulty entering new international markets due to, among other things, customer acceptance and business knowledge of these markets; and
 
   
general economic and political conditions.
In addition, our ability to realize the benefits we anticipate from our acquisition activities, including any anticipated sales growth, cost synergies and other anticipated benefits, will depend in large part upon whether we are able to integrate such businesses efficiently and effectively. Integration is an ongoing process, and we may not be able to fully integrate such businesses smoothly or successfully, and the process may take longer than expected. Further, the integration of certain operations and the differences in operational culture following such activity will continue to require the dedication of significant management resources, which may distract management’s attention from
day-to-day
business operations. There may also be unasserted claims or assessments that we failed or were unable to discover or identify in the course of performing due diligence investigations of target businesses. If we are unable to successfully integrate the operations of acquired businesses into our business, we may be unable to realize the sales growth, cost synergies and other anticipated benefits of such transactions, and our business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected.
Any current or future joint ventures or minority investments will be subject to certain risks inherent in these investments.
While we endeavor to mitigate joint venture and minority investment risks through legally enforceable partnership agreements and other instruments, our minority status may expose us to risks beyond our control and unique to investments in joint ventures and minority investments, including:
 
   
potential disagreements with our partner about how to manage the business;
 
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the lack of full control of the venture’s management, and therefore its actions;
 
   
the possibility that our partner might have or develop business interests or strategies that are contrary to ours;
 
   
the potential need for us to fund future capital to the business, as loans to the business, as capital contributions to the joint venture, or otherwise;
 
   
the possible financial distress or insolvency of our partner, which could lead to our having to contribute its share of additional capital to the business;
 
   
the cost of litigation or arbitration (including damage to reputation) in the event of a dispute with our partner;
 
   
negative business and financial performance of the business because of substantial disagreements with our partner; and
 
   
preemptive dissolution of the business because we or our partner choose, or become obligated, to acquire the equity interests of the other in the business.
Our indebtedness could adversely affect our financial health and competitive position.
Our indebtedness increases the risk that we may be unable to generate cash sufficient to pay amounts due in respect of our indebtedness. It could also have effects on our business. For example, it could:
 
   
limit our ability to pay distributions and repurchase capital stock;
 
   
increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
 
   
require us to dedicate a material portion of our cash flow from operations to make payments on our indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow for working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes;
 
   
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and industry; and
 
   
limit our ability to incur additional indebtedness.
The credit agreement our subsidiary Sportradar Management Ltd entered into with J.P. Morgan Securities PLC, Citigroup Global Markets Limited, Credit Suisse International, Goldman Sachs Bank USA, UBS AG London Branch and UBS Switzerland AG (as Mandated Lead Arrangers), J.P. Morgan AG (as Agent) and Lucid Trustee Services Limited (as Security Agent) in November 2020 (the “Credit Agreement”) contains, and any agreements evidencing or governing other future indebtedness may contain, certain rest